New Cancer Treatment Uses Patient’s Immune System To Fight Disease

Image result for New Cancer Treatment Uses Patient’s Immune System To Fight DiseaseNEW YORK (KDKA) – Scientists are reporting unprecedented success with a new type of cancer treatment. It uses the patient’s own immune system to fight the disease.

Emma Collins looks like a typical 16-year-old girl now, but less than three years ago she was dying of cancer.

Kashaun Lawhown, 7, was facing the same fate.

Both of them were battling leukemia, and traditional treatments — chemotherapy and radiation — weren’t working.

A game changing experimental cancer treatment that utilizes the body’s own immune system gave them a second chance.

“The immune system has developed over many, many billions of years to actually get rid of things that don’t belong in the body, cancer doesn’t belong there,” Dr. Stephan Grupp said.

Dr. Grupp is the Director of Immunotherapy at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia where Kashaun and Emma took part in a clinical trial for this revolutionary treatment.

“We collect white blood cells from the patient — those include T-cells. Those T-cells then go to a specific place where they are manufactured; reprogrammed to actually be able to attack cancer cells,” Dr. Grupp said.

These suped-up cells, now called CAR-T cells are then put back in the body where they multiply and get to work.

“When they find something that they recognize, like the B-cell leukemia, they kill that off,” Dr. Shannon Maude. said.

“If you had told me five years ago, how effective they would be, I wouldn’t have believed you,” Dr. Stephen Hunger said.

Better yet, some of the CAR T-Cells may actually stick around to fight a recurrence.

“A one-time treatment can certainly lead to at least five years of survival, and we hope can lead to cures,” Dr. Hunger said.

After battling leukemia for five years, it took just one T-cell treatment to finally put Kashaun’s cancer into remission.

“Everything worked out good and I’m healthy,” Emma said.

Just four days after her treatment there was no sign of her cancer. What’s more amazing, she’s been in remission now for 18 months.

Out of many, many years, or many, many people doing a lot of work to come to this point, it’s really exciting,” Dr. Maude said.

The CAR-T therapy is effective mainly against leukemia and lymphoma but researchers are working to also use it against so-called solid tumors like breast, colon, and lung.

Not all patients have their cancer destroyed, the trials have been positive enough that the FDA is expected to approve the therapy this year.

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New blood test could see personalised prostate cancer treatment

The Institute of Cancer Research says blood tests for cancer promise to be truly revolutionary, as they are cheap and simple to use. Photograph: Elaine Thompson/AP

A new three-in-one blood test could pave the way to precision-personalised treatment for advanced prostate cancer, say scientists.

The test has the potential to transform the way the disease is tackled by targeting specific gene mutations, it is claimed.

By looking for cancer DNA in blood samples, researchers were able to identify men with defective BRCA genes who were likely to benefit from a class of drugs called Parp inhibitors.

They also used the test to monitor DNA in the blood after treatment started, so patients who were not responding could quickly be switched to an alternative therapy.

Finally, the same test was used to pick up signs of evolving cancer showing the first signs of drug resistance.

Prof Johann de Bono, who led the team at the Institute of Cancer Research in London, said: “We were able to develop a powerful, three-in-one test that could in future be used to help doctors select treatment, check whether it is working and monitor the cancer in the longer term.

“We think it could be used to make clinical decisions about whether a Parp inhibitor is working within as little as four to eight weeks of starting therapy.

“Not only could the test have a major impact on treatment of prostate cancer, but it could also be adapted to open up the possibility of precision medicine to patients with other types of cancer as well.”

In future, the test could allow the Parp inhibitor olaparib to become a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer, by targeting those most likely to benefit, picking up early signs that the drug might not be working, and monitoring for emerging resistance.

Parp inhibitors such as olaparib block an enzyme used by cancer cells with defective BRCA 1 and 2 genes to repair their DNA.

When Parp is disabled, the cells die. The drugs do not generally work on cancer cells with functioning BRCA genes, because these are primary DNA repair tools that make Parp unnecessary. While some patients respond to the drugs for years, others either fail to respond at an early stage or develop resistant cancer.

The new test, described in the journal Cancer Discovery, was developed with the help of 49 patients enrolled in TOPARP-A, a Phase II clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of olaparib.

Men responding to the drug were found to experience an average drop in circulating cancer DNA of 49.6% after eight weeks of treatment. In contrast, cancer DNA levels rose by 2.1% in patients who did not respond.

Patients whose cancer DNA blood levels were lowered by olaparib survived an average of 17 months compared with 10.1 months for those whose levels remained high.

The scientists also conducted a detailed investigation of the genetic changes in cancer DNA among men who stopped responding to olaparib. They found that the cells acquired genetic changes that cancelled out the DNA repair defects making them susceptible to the drug.

Prof Paul Workman, chief executive of the Institute of Cancer Research, said: “Blood tests for cancer promise to be truly revolutionary. They are cheap and simple to use, but most importantly, because they aren’t invasive, they can be employed or applied to routinely monitor patients to spot early if treatment is failing – offering patients the best chance of surviving their disease.

“This test is particularly exciting because it is multi-purpose, designed for use both before and after treatment, and using both the absolute amounts of cancer DNA in the bloodstream and also a readout of the specific mutations within that genetic material.

“We believe it can usher in a new era of precision medicine for prostate cancer.”

Each year, around 47,000 men in the UK are diagnosed with prostate cancer and more than 11,000 die from the disease.

Dr Matthew Hobbs, deputy director of research at the charity Prostate Cancer UK, which funded the research, said: “It’s clear that we need to move away from the current one-size-fits-all approach to much more targeted treatment methods.

“The results from this study and others like it are crucial as they give an important understanding of the factors that drive certain prostate cancers, or make them vulnerable to specific treatments.”

[“Source-ndtv”]

Nearly 1/2 of breast cancer patients have severe treatment side effects, 1 in 20 Indians suffers from depression

Health weekly roundupHealth weekly roundup
This week was packed with some very shocking yet important health news. To ensure that you don’t miss any, we bring you a weekly roundup. Here is this week’s aggregation of the latest news stories on health, fitness and diet.

Insomnia may triple the risk of asthma: Study

Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, with major risk factors including smoking, obesity and air pollution.

Mother’s cervical bacteria may help prevent premature birth

The presence of bacteria in a woman’s vagina and cervix may either increase the risk of premature birth or have a protective effect against it, researchers say.

Attention parents! Cooking in those aluminium pans may reduce your kid’s IQ

The findings published in journal Science of the Total Environment, indicate that cadmium is neurotoxic in children and causes kidney damage which is linked to cardiovascular deaths and is carcinogenic.

Eating celery, broccoli can improve treatment of breast cancer

The findings indicate that Luteolin, a naturally occurring, non-toxic plant compound that has been proven effective against several types of cancer.

‘Anxiety, depression may up risk of death from cancers’

Higher levels of anxiety and depression may increase the risk of death from certain cancers, scientists have warned.

Nearly half of breast cancer patients have severe treatment side effects

Many women being treated for breast cancer suffer from severe treatment side effects even when they don’t receive chemotherapy, a recent study suggests.

One in every 20 Indians suffers from depression

Indians popped in more anti-depressants than ever before in 2016, indicating perhaps that they are now more open to the idea of seeking help for mental health problems.

Wrongly diagnosed foot injury may cause arthritis, chronic pain

The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association Review has highlighted the importance of additional imaging, second opinions for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Only 1% of R&D funds spent for HIV, TB and malaria: WHO

Investments in health research and development (R&D) are poorly aligned with global public health needs, the World Health Organisation said.

Healthy food may benefit people with HIV, diabetes: Study

Mediterranean diet loaded with fresh fruits and vegetables, lean proteins and healthy fats for six months may benefit people with HIV and Type 2 diabetes.

Cheap breath test may detect stomach, oesophageal cancers

Scientists have developed a cheap and non-invasive test that can measure the levels of five chemicals in the breath to detect cancers of the oesophagus and stomach with 85 per cent accuracy.

source”cnbc”

Nearly 1/2 of breast cancer patients have severe treatment side effects, 1 in 20 Indians suffers from depression

Health weekly roundupHealth weekly roundup

This week was packed with some very shocking yet important health news. To ensure that you don’t miss any, we bring you a weekly roundup. Here is this week’s aggregation of the latest news stories on health, fitness and diet.

Insomnia may triple the risk of asthma: Study

Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, with major risk factors including smoking, obesity and air pollution.

Mother’s cervical bacteria may help prevent premature birth

The presence of bacteria in a woman’s vagina and cervix may either increase the risk of premature birth or have a protective effect against it, researchers say.

Attention parents! Cooking in those aluminium pans may reduce your kid’s IQ

The findings published in journal Science of the Total Environment, indicate that cadmium is neurotoxic in children and causes kidney damage which is linked to cardiovascular deaths and is carcinogenic.

Eating celery, broccoli can improve treatment of breast cancer

The findings indicate that Luteolin, a naturally occurring, non-toxic plant compound that has been proven effective against several types of cancer.

‘Anxiety, depression may up risk of death from cancers’

Higher levels of anxiety and depression may increase the risk of death from certain cancers, scientists have warned.

Nearly half of breast cancer patients have severe treatment side effects

Many women being treated for breast cancer suffer from severe treatment side effects even when they don’t receive chemotherapy, a recent study suggests.

One in every 20 Indians suffers from depression

Indians popped in more anti-depressants than ever before in 2016, indicating perhaps that they are now more open to the idea of seeking help for mental health problems.

Wrongly diagnosed foot injury may cause arthritis, chronic pain

The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association Review has highlighted the importance of additional imaging, second opinions for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Only 1% of R&D funds spent for HIV, TB and malaria: WHO

Investments in health research and development (R&D) are poorly aligned with global public health needs, the World Health Organisation said.

Healthy food may benefit people with HIV, diabetes: Study

Mediterranean diet loaded with fresh fruits and vegetables, lean proteins and healthy fats for six months may benefit people with HIV and Type 2 diabetes.

Cheap breath test may detect stomach, oesophageal cancers

Scientists have developed a cheap and non-invasive test that can measure the levels of five chemicals in the breath to detect cancers of the oesophagus and stomach with 85 per cent accuracy.

Protein can cut progression of both inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: Study

A new study finds that altering the shape of a protein can significantly reduce the progression of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.

Children exposed to complications at birth are at risk of autism, study finds

A study by Kaiser Permanente found that children who were exposed to complications shortly before or during birth, including birth asphyxia and preeclampsia, were more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder.

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Eating celery, broccoli can improve treatment of breast cancer

ANI | Jan 25, 2017, 03.30 PM IST

Eating celery, broccoli can improve treatment of breast cancer (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)Eating celery, broccoli can improve treatment of breast cancer (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)
Researchers from the University of Missouri found that a natural compound, Luteolin, found in herbs such as thyme and parsley and vegetables such as celery and broccoli, can reduce the risk of developing metastasis originating from triple-negative breast cancer in women.

The findings indicate that Luteolin, a naturally occurring, non-toxic plant compound that has been proven effective against several types of cancer.

“Triple-negative breast cancers are cancer cells that lack three receptors targeted by current chemotherapy regimens. Because of this lack of receptors, common cancer drugs can’t ‘find’ the cells, and doctors must treat the cancer with extremely aggressive and highly toxic treatment strategies,” said Salman Hyder from the College of Veterinary Medicine and the Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center.

“Women with this type of breast cancer also frequently develop metastatic lesions that originate from drug-resistant cells. Therefore, safer therapeutic therapies that are more effective are being sought for this deadly type of cancer in women,” Hyder added.

The team tested Luteolin to determine if it could suppress metastasis, using human triple-negative breast cancer cells grown in mice.

In the first series of tests, they found that Luteolin inhibited the metastasis of triple-negative cancer in the lungs of affected mice.

“Mice exposed to human triple-negative breast cancer cells experienced significantly reduced metastastic growth in their lungs after being treated with Luteolin,” Hyder stated.

“In almost every case, the mice also saw no weight loss, which means luteolin has no toxic effects; this plant compound is both safe and effective,” Hyder explained.

They found that Luteolin inhibits that migration and can also kill cancer cells.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.

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Study opens avenues for treatment of lethal brain cancer

ANI | Nov 18, 2016, 06.20 PM IST

Study opens avenues for treatment of lethal brain cancer (Thinkstock Photos/ Getty Images)Study opens avenues for treatment of lethal brain cancer (Thinkstock Photos/ Getty Images)
According to a recent research published in the Cell journal, researchers have identified a pathway by which cancer cells aggressively spread and grow in the brain, opening up new possibilities for treatment of Glioblastoma multiforme brain cancer.

“The poor prognosis of glioblastoma relates to the near universal recurrence of tumors despite robust treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy,” said researcher Baoli Hu.

Adding, “Our study shows the potential for a new therapeutic strategy based on targeting the mechanisms allowing glioma to re-grow aggressively in the brain.”

Hu and his colleagues developed a glioblastoma model to locate glioma stem cells, which, like all stem calls, have the ability to become other cell types.

The researchers further found that the gene, WNT5A, when activated, allowed glioma stem cells to transition, leading to invasive tumor growth.

“We uncovered a process by which glioma stem cells mediated by the WNT5A gene become endothelial-like cells,” said Hu.

“These new cells known as GdECs, recruit existing endothelial cells to form a niche supporting the growth of invasive glioma cells away from the primary tumor, and often leading to satellite lesions and disease recurrence,” he added.

Clinical data revealed higher WNT5A and GdECs expression in these satellite lesions and recurrent tumors than was observed in the primary tumors, affirming the tie between WNT5A-mediated stem cell differentiation and glioma cell spread throughout the brain, and contributing to the cancer’s lethalness.

The study established WNT5A as a key factor in glioma stem cells transitioning to GdECs. The team believes this opens up the possibility for a new therapeutic strategy for patients with glioblastoma.

Recent clinical data show the FDA-approved drug, bevacizumab, did not benefit patients as a first line treatment of recurrent glioblastoma by targeting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF).

With this new information, the study team proposes an additional therapeutic approach targeting WNT5A and VEGF signaling pathways for recurrent glioblastoma.

“Our preliminary data show that bevacizumab may increase WNT5A-mediated GdECs differentiation and recruitment of existing endothelial cells resulting in no proven benefit to patients with glioblastoma” said Hu.

“This new strategy should improve the outcome of brain cancer patients undergoing VEGF therapy, by limiting new tumor growth and invasion, and disease recurrence,” concluded Hu.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.

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Prostate Cancer Treatment May Double Dementia Risk: Study

Prostate Cancer Treatment May Double Dementia Risk: StudyWASHINGTON:  Men with prostate cancer who are treated with testosterone-lowering drugs are twice as likely to develop dementia within five years as those whose hormone levels are not tampered with, researchers including one of Indian origin have found.

Testosterone can promote the growth of prostate tumours, and so clinicians have used androgen deprivation therapy to lower testosterone and other androgens in prostate cancer patients since the 1940s.

The team at the Stanford University and the University of Pennsylvania in the US looked at deidentified records for nearly 10,000 patients with prostate cancer.

Out of the 1,829 who received androgen deprivation therapy, 7.9 per cent developed dementia within five years, compared with 3.5 per cent of those not treated with ADT.

“The risk is real and depending on the prior dementia history of the patient we may want to consider alternative treatment, particularly in light of recent study,” said Nigam Shah, associate professor at Stanford.

The study tells that prostate cancer patients randomised to either active monitoring, surgery or radiation therapy all had the same risk of death from the cancer after 10 years.

Ninety-nine per cent of men in the study survived regardless of initial treatment. These startling results suggest that active monitoring of prostate cancer patients may be as good as early radical treatment and may cause fewer side effects.The actual number of patients possibly at risk for dementia from androgen deprivation therapy is small, it makes sense when weighing the value of prescribing ADT to try to identify which prostate cancer patients might be vulnerable to dementia, said Shah.

The study adds to a growing body of evidence supporting Stanford Medicine’s precision health approach, the goal of which is to anticipate and prevent disease in the healthy and precisely diagnose and treat disease in the ill.

“I was surprised at how ubiquitous the effects on all types of dementia were, but I would definitely not alter clinical care based on our results,” said lead author Kevin Nead, from University of Pennsylvania.

He added that he would like to see a prospective, randomised clinical trial to establish whether ADT can be more firmly linked to an increased risk of dementia and to help identify what kinds of patients might be vulnerable to that increased risk.

He anticipates that checking for dementia risk in people treated with ADT will be part of future randomised, clinical trials that have a larger focus.

The study was published in The New England Journal of Medicine.

source”cnbc”

Oppo R9s receives the leaked press render treatment ahead of its unveiling next week

Oppo isn’t hiding the fact that its event on October 19 will be all about the R9s. The Chinese company has been teasing its next smartphone for a few weeks now, and in China a TV ad campaign is already in full swing. What’s more, a few hours ago Oppo has started taking early registrations from those interested in the R9s, even before making it official.

Thus it’s pretty clear that the company thinks it has a winner on its hands. The R9s (and R9s Plus that should get unveiled alongside it next Wednesday) are going to succeed the R9 and R9 Plus in its portfolio. We’ve already heard about the new models’ camera, and the R9s has been spotted in a benchmark yesterday, having most of its specs confirmed.

What you see above is the R9s, neatly portrayed in these newly leaked official-looking press renders. It has an all-metal body, with a new antenna line design no less, and while it looks similar to the R9, many small details have been changed.

The R9s should sport a 5.5-inch 1080p touchscreen, a 16 MP rear camera and a 16 MP front-facing unit, the Snapdragon 625 chipset, 4GB of RAM, 64GB of storage, and a 3,010 mAh battery. It’s likely to run Android 6.0.1 Marshmallow and support Oppo’s Super VOOC fast charging tech.

Source

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Lamborghini,Huracan,Avio,launch,in,India,on,September,22

Superbugs Hinder Treatment Of Kidney Infections

Scientists have found that superbugs – antibiotic-resistant bacteria – can make it more difficult to treat a common but severe kidney infection.

Pyelonephritis – infection of the kidney usually caused by E coli bacteria and which can start as a urinary tract infection – causes fever, back pain and vomiting.

About half of people infected require hospitalisation, researchers said. If not treated with effective antibiotics, it can cause sepsis and death.

In the study by University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), based on data from 10 large hospital emergency departments in the US, almost 12 per cent of people diagnosed with pyelonephritis had infections resistant to the standard class of antibiotic used in treatment – fluoroquinolone.

That is up from 4 per cent in a similar study conducted a decade ago. In some cities, and among some people with certain risk factors – such as international travel or recent hospitalisation or treatment with an antibiotic -fluoroquinolone resistance rates exceeded 20 per cent.

The study documents the emergence of infections caused by a specific strain of E coli that is resistant to additional types of antibiotics, severely limiting treatment options.

That strain, dubbed ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases) for the antibiotic-destroying enzymes it produces, was not detected in the previous study.

The enzymes were first detected in 1979 and are most often found in developing nations.

Currently, there are only a few intravenous antibiotic options to treat ESBL-related infections, and no oral antibiotics that are consistently effective.

“This is a very real example of the threat posed by the emergence of new antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, which greatly complicates treatment of infection,” said David Talan, professor at UCLA.

The study included 453 people diagnosed with kidney infection.

Participants were diagnosed between July 2013 and December 2014 in 10 emergency departments at large hospitals.

Researchers found that the rates of ESBL-related infections varied from 0 per cent to more than 20 per cent, depending on the location of the emergency room and patient risk factors.

About one in three people infected with ESBL-producing E coli had no traditional risk factors for antibiotic resistance, suggesting the bacterial strain is now endemic in the US and healthy people are also at risk, researchers said.

About three of every four people infected with ESBL-producing E coli were initially treated with antibiotics ineffective against that particular strain of bacteria, placing them at risk for poor outcomes.

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Researchers propose new treatment to prevent kidney stones

Engineer Jeffrey Rimer and collaborators have discovered a new molecule that has the potential to be a more effective inhibitor of kidney stone formation.
Credit: University of Houston

Researchers have found evidence that a natural fruit extract is capable of dissolving calcium oxalate crystals, the most common component of human kidney stones. This finding could lead to the first advance in the treatment of calcium oxalate stones in 30 years.

Jeffrey Rimer, associate professor of chemical engineering at the University of Houston, was lead author of the study, published Aug. 8 in the online edition of Nature. The work offers the first evidence that the compound hydroxycitrate (HCA) is an effective inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystal growth that, under certain conditions, is actually able to dissolve these crystals. Researchers also explain how it works.

The findings are the result of a combination of experimental studies, computational studies and human studies, Rimer said.

Kidney stones are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys, affecting up to 12 percent of men and seven percent of women. High blood pressure, diabetes and obesity can increase the risk, and the reported incidence is on the rise.

Preventive treatment has not changed much over the last three decades. Doctors tell patients who are at risk of developing stones to drink lots of water and avoid foods rich in oxalate, such as rhubarb, okra, spinach and almonds. They often recommend taking citrate (CA), in the form of potassium citrate, a supplement that can slow crystal growth, but some people are unable to tolerate the side effects.

The project grew out of preliminary work done by collaborator John Asplin, a nephrologist at Litholink Corporation, who suggested HCA as a possible treatment. HCA is chemically similar to CA and is also available as a dietary supplement.

“HCA shows promise as a potential therapy to prevent kidney stones,” the researchers wrote. “HCA may be preferred as a therapy over CA (potassium citrate).”

In addition to Rimer and Asplin, authors on the paper include Giannis Mpourmpakis and his graduate student, Michael G. Taylor, of the University of Pittsburgh; Ignacio Granja of Litholink Corporation, and Jihae Chung, a UH graduate student working in Rimer’s lab.

The head-to-head studies of CA and HCA determined that while both compounds inhibit the growth of calcium oxalate crystals, HCA was more potent and displayed unique qualities that are advantageous for the development of new therapies.

The team of researchers then used atomic force microscopy, or AFM, to study interactions between the crystals, CA and HCA under realistic growth conditions. According to Rimer, the technique allowed them to record crystal growth in real time with near-molecular resolution.

Chung noted that the AFM images recorded the crystal actually shrinking when exposed to specific concentrations of HCA. Rimer suspected the initial finding was an abnormality, as it is rare to see a crystal actually dissolve in highly supersaturated growth solutions. The most effective inhibitors reported in the literature simply stop the crystal from growing.

It turned out that Chung’s initial finding was correct. Once they confirmed it is possible to dissolve crystals in supersaturated solutions, researchers then looked at reasons to explain why that happened.

Mpourmpakis and Taylor applied density functional theory (DFT) — a highly accurate computational method used to study the structure and properties of materials — to address how HCA and CA bind to calcium and to calcium oxalate crystals. They discovered HCA formed a stronger bond with crystal surfaces, inducing a strain that is seemingly relieved by the release of calcium and oxalate, leading to crystal dissolution.

HCA was also tested in human subjects, as seven people took the supplement for three days, allowing researchers to determine that HCA is excreted through urine, a requirement for the supplement to work as a treatment.

While Rimer said the research established the groundwork to design an effective drug, questions remain. Long-term safety, dosage and additional human trials are needed, he said.

“But our initial findings are very promising,” he said. “If it works in vivo, similar to our trials in the laboratory, HCA has the potential to reduce the incidence rate of people with chronic kidney stone disease.”
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