Rise and prevalence of Cancer in India

Rise and prevalence of Cancer in India (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)Rise and prevalence of Cancer in India (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)
Based on the data between 2010 and 2012, it is suggested that at some point during their lifetime approximately 39.6 per cent of women and men will be diagnosed with cancer. In India, it is estimated that 14.5 lakh people are living with the disease, with over 7 lakh new cases being registered every year and 5,56,400 deaths which are said to be cancer related. An estimated 71 per cent of all cancer related deaths are occurring in the age group between 30 to 69 years.

While lung, colorectal, pharynx, stomach, head and neck, and liver were the five most common sites of cancer diagnosed among men in 2012; for the same period, the five common sites of cancer diagnosed among women were breast, ovary, lip and oral cavity, lung and cervix.

Tobacco use is linked to around 20 per cent of global cancer deaths and 70 per cent of global lung cancer.Lung cancer is one of the commonest cancers, accounting for 13 per cent of all new cancer cases and 19 per cent of cancer related deaths worldwide. The increasing prevalence of smoking has resulted in lung cancerreaching epidemic proportions in India, where an estimated 2,500 deaths every day can be linked to tobacco related diseases. In 2010, smoking accounted for an estimated 9,30,000 deaths; 1 in 5 deaths among men and 1 in 20 among women.

The National Cancer Registry puts breast cancer as the most common and cervical cancer as the second most common cancer in women in India. Although the Indian Council of Medical Research reports suggest that cancer of the cervix has become the third most common cancer after breast and lung cancer. It is estimated that for every two women newly diagnosed with breast cancer one dies, while every 8 minutes one woman dies of cervical cancer.

Breast cancer accounts for 27 per cent of all cancers in women in India, with the incidence rising in the early thirties and peaking at ages 50-64 years. It is estimated that 1 in 28 women is likely to develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Cervical cancer accounts for 22.9 per cent of all cancer cases in women. Being the third largest cause of cancer deaths in India, it accounts for nearly 20 per cent of all cancer related deaths. It generally affects the 21 to 67 age group, with the median age of occurrence being 38 years. As compared to the urban women, rural women are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.Since survival rates improve if the condition is diagnosed and treated early, screening for cervical cancer is important


Cancer cases may rise 6 times among women in 20 years

Sushmi Dey| TNN | Feb 4, 2017, 03.37 PM IST

Cancer cases may rise 6 times among women in 20 years (Getty Images)Cancer cases may rise 6 times among women in 20 years (Getty Images)
Incidence of cancer is projected to be six times more among women over the next two decades, mainly because of obesity , according to an assessment by Cancer Research, UK.Several of the obesity related cancers only affect women leading to a greater possibility of the disease among them. Besides obesity, smoking is also considered a significant reason for faster rate of cancer among women.

Cases of ovarian, cervical and oral cancers are predicted to rise the most, the analysis said. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), around one third of deaths from cancer are due to the five leading behavioural and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity and to bacco and alcohol use.

The new data released by WHO, ahead of World Cancer Day on February 4, shows that the disease is now responsible for almost one in six deaths globally with around 8.8 million deaths from cancer reported every year. According to the UN agency , lowand middle-income countries account for two-thirds of cancer deaths as many of them lack early screening and basic treatment facilities for all.

Over 10 lakh new cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in India. However, due to late diagnosis over 7 lakh people die from the disease every year. Projections by Indian Council of Medical Research show India is likely to have over 17.3 lakh new cases of cancer and over 8.8 lakh deaths due to the disease by 2020.


30% rise in ocular, respiratory complaints in Delhi


30% rise in ocular, respiratory complaints in Delhi (Photo credit: AFP)30% rise in ocular, respiratory complaints in Delhi (Photo credit: AFP)
With arrival of winter and increase in smog, Delhi hospitals have witnessed a 30 per cent rise in respiratory and ocular complaints in the last two-three weeks.

According to the hospitals, the major cases were of skin and eye allergies, followed by conjunctivitis lung and chest infection.

“Certainly, there is sudden rush of patients with respiratory, ocular and skin problems. Though the exact figure can’t be given but there is a rise of at least 20-30 per cent patients in our respiratory and ophthalmology OPDs,” A.K. Rai, Medical Superintendent of Safdarjung Hospital, told IANS.

According to Rai, the data will be more precise at the end of the month as it is being compiled.

Rai said it’s not just lungs and heart that get affected by pollution but eyes too are sensitive and prone to irritation from allergies, chemicals and pollutants in the air.

“In fact, high levels of pollutants and rise in PM 2.5 levels is leading to a number of eye conditions ranging from simple eye irritation to severe allergy,” said Rai, an Otorhinolaryngologist.

Other government hospitals such as All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) and Ram Manohar Lohia (RML) Hospital also witnessed a surge in patients with respiratory and ocular problems, which consisted mostly of allergy patients.

“This year it’s quite more than what we experience every winter season. In fact, the arrival of asthma patients with extreme complications is quite early in comparison to the later part of the winter season,” Rajesh Samaria, a respiratory expert at RML, told IANS.

Rakesh Chawla, Senior Consultant of Respiratory Medicine at Saroj Super Speciality Hospital, said: “The number of patients in the OPD has increased drastically in the past week. The thick layer of smog and the increasing level of air pollution have led to wheezing, difficulty in breathing and choking. Inhaling this polluted air is very dangerous especially for children whose lungs are still developing.”

Saroj Super Specialty Hospital has reported at least over 300 patients with respiratory and ocular problems in the last one week.

“Polluted air destroys immune system leading to infection, sneezing and wheezing,” said Saxena, adding that with the ill effect on respiratory tract, pollution also affects hair, skin and makes them dry.

Ashutosh Shukla, Director and Head of Medicine at Artemis Hospitals, said: “There is around 20 to 30 times increase in the OPD in the last week, with patients complaining about congestion, sinusitis, asthma, difficulty in breathing.

“As PM 2.5 is very fine, it can settle in the lungs of kids and worsen asthma and other respiratory problems. Sixty per cent of the patients are under the age of five or over the age of 50.”

According to data from the city based Centre for Sight, a leading eye hospital, 65 per cent of the patients suffering from eye allergies were men in the age group between 20 and 40 as they were more exposed to polluted air while remaining outdoor.

“People living in areas with high pollutants are three-four times more likely to develop an eye condition called dry eye syndrome which occurs when there are insufficient tears to lubricate the eye. Dry eyes can be a chronic condition,” said Ritika Sachdev, Additional Director Medical Services at Centre for Sight.


New Breast Cancer Cases To Rise To 3.2 Million A Year By 2030

New Breast Cancer Cases To Rise To 3.2 Million A Year By 2030

New Breast Cancer Cases To Rise To 3.2 Million A Year By 2030
India, China have the largest number of women with breast and cervical cancer.
TORONTO: By 2030, the number of women diagnosed every year with breast cancer could almost double to 3.2 million and cervical cancer cases can rise at least 25 per cent to over 700,000 globally unless urgent action is taken, a study has cautioned.

The findings of the study, published in the Lancet, have showed that India and China are two countries with the largest number of women with breast and cervical cancer.

Globally, cervical and breast cancer take the lives of 800,000 women every year — with two-thirds of breast cancer deaths and nine out of 10 cervical cancer deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries.

Five-year survival after diagnosis for breast cancer ranges from around 50 per cent in South Africa, Mongolia and India, to over 80 per cent in 34 countries, including Australia, the UK, Ireland, France, Germany and the US, highlighting huge inequalities in access to prevention, early detection, and treatment.

Persistent underinvestment in low- and middle-income countries, which receive just 5 per cent of global funding for cancer, has exacerbated the issue.

Further, with many competing health priorities in low- and middle-income countries, services for women’s cancers are given low priority and allocated few resources.
In addition, “there is a widespread misconception that breast and cervical cancers are too difficult and expensive to prevent and treat, particularly in resource-poor countries where the burden of these diseases is highest,” said lead author Ophira Ginsburg, professor at the University of Toronto, Canada.

Yet, breast and cervical cancer are not inevitably fatal and can be prevented and treated, say the authors, particularly if they are detected and treated at an early stage, the researchers observed.

“There are several low-cost, feasible interventions that do not require specialised care in hospital or massive capital investment, and which could be integrated into existing health-care programmes,” explains Lynette Denny, professor at University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Cervical cancer, for example, is almost entirely preventable thanks to cost-effective routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls and cervical screening with treatment of pre-cancers, neither of which require oncologists, or specialist cancer centres, and can prevent 600,000 future cervical cancer deaths in the world’s poorest countries over the next four years.

While mammography and late treatment of breast cancer are likely unaffordable, clinical breast examination screening and breast awareness campaigns are likely to be cost-effective in diagnosing early stage breast cancer in LMICs, and could in turn help promote early treatment.

The response to women’s cancers needs to be seen as a vital part of international commitments to achieve universal health coverage and the new sustainable development goals, the authors said