Even modest changes to diet could reduce risk of death, study finds

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With more than one-third of U.S. adults suffering from obesity, it’s no surprise that many Americans would benefit from healthier eating habits. Fad diets capitalize on our desire for quick results but usually fail in the long run.

Now new research adds to the evidence that a more moderate approach can make a lasting difference.

A study from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health finds that improving the quality of diet over time, even with modest changes, may significantly reduce the risk of premature death.

Improvements to diet included consuming more whole grainsvegetables, fruits, nuts, and fish and eating less red and processed meats and sugary beverages.

“Overall, our findings underscore the benefits of healthy eating patterns including the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet. Our study indicates that even modest improvements in diet quality could meaningfully influence mortality risk and conversely, worsening diet quality may increase the risk,” lead author Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, who worked on the study while a postdoctoral fellow in the Harvard Chan School department of nutrition and who is currently an assistant professor of nutrition at Ohio University, said in a statement.

For the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Sotos-Prieto and her team analyzed data on nearly 74,000 adults over a 12-year period. The researchers assessed the participants’ diet using three different scoring methods: the 2010 Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. Each model assigns scores to various types of food, with healthier foods receiving higher scores and less healthy foods receiving lower scores.

The results showed that better diet quality over a 12-year period was linked to a reduced risk of death in the subsequent 12 years, no matter which method of scoring was used. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables and fish or n-3 fatty acids appeared to contribute most to an improvement in diet quality.

Specifically, the study showed that a 20-percentile increase in diet-quality scores was associated with an 8 to 17 percent reduction in the risk of death.

That can be achieved, for example, by swapping out just one serving of red or processed meat and replacing it with one daily serving of nuts or legumes.

In contrast, worsening diet quality was linked to a 6 to 12 percent increase in the risk of death.

Nancy Z. Farrell, a registered dietitian nutritionist and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, said the findings reinforce the work she does every day with her patients.

“Registered dietitian nutritionists practice evidence-based science every day in encouraging and educating the public on disease prevention and treatment, and we know that chronic disease increases the cost of health care and drives up insurance premiums,” she told CBS News.

Farrell says everyone can benefit from making smart diet swaps as often as possible.

“Have a ‘meatless Monday’ dinner where you incorporate beans or legumes, such as red beans and quinoa. Or have a veggie pizza night,” she suggests.

When it comes to snacking, avoid high-calorie junk foods like potato chips and opt for a handful of nuts, or make your own trail mix with nuts, seeds, and dried fruit.

And if you’re looking for a sweet treat, skip the ice cream and try freezing some fruit instead.

“Blueberries or blackberries offer a refreshing summer snack with a burst of coolness,” Farrell said.

Importantly, experts say it’s crucial to not only incorporate such changes into your diet, but to stick with them over time.

“Our results highlight the long-term health benefits of improving diet quality with an emphasis on overall dietary patterns rather than on individual foods or nutrients,” said Frank Hu, professor and chair of the Harvard Chan School department of nutrition and senior author of the study. “A healthy eating pattern can be adopted according to individuals’ food and cultural preferences and health conditions. There is no one-size-fits-all diet.”

[“Source-cbsnews”]

A few minutes of light exercise, rather than a sweaty gym workout, is all that is needed to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, study suggests

Even small amounts of physical activity can offer health benefits that protect against diabetesEven small amounts of physical activity can offer health benefits that protect against diabetes, new research suggests.

A new study found that even a little exercise wards off insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes which can result from a high-fat diet.

Insulin resistance occurs when the cells of the body stop responding to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body.

Exercise can prevent insulin resistance by prompting the body to remove damaged cells and enhancing the quality of mitochondria, the cell’s energy powerhouses.

Type 2 diabetes affects 4.5 million people living in the UK and 29 million people in the US.

Even small amounts of physical activity can offer health benefits that protect against diabetes

The study also casts doubt on the previously held view that increasing the quantity of mitochondria could help fix some consequences of a high fat diet, including insulin resistance.

The researchers found that the benefits from physical activity were not affected by the quantity of mitochondria.

Lead researcher Megan Rosa-Caldwell, a doctoral student at the University of Arkansas, found that mice genetically engineered to have higher quantity of mitochondria were not more protected against high-fat diet induced insulin resistance.

How was the research conducted?

The researchers fed all the mice in the study a Western diet high in fat.

The genetically engineered and control mice were further divided into a group that was allowed to exercise, and a sedentary group.

Their results showed that physical activity, regardless of the amount of mitochondria, offered similar health benefits against insulin resistance.

Even a little exercise wards off insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes which can result from a high-fat diet

Study found even a little exercise wards off insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes

The researchers said that it appears that exercise’s ability to help remove damaged cells and enhance the quality of the mitochondria may be more effective for preventing insulin resistance.

But they said these aspects need to be further tested.

Exercise offers ‘the greatest protection’

Ms Rosa-Caldwell said that with rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes continuing to increase, understanding the cellular processes that help or hurt insulin resistance can help doctors better tailor effective preventative measures such as exercise.

She added: ‘For now, physical activity is the greatest protection, but further research may enable us to prevent and treat insulin resistance, and subsequent diabetes, more effectively.’

The research was published in the journal Experimental Physiology.

[“Source-ndtv”]

 

Drug Information Centre Will Reduce Rate of Abuse–Official

alarming-rate-drug abuse-future-time-bomb-customs

Ibadan, June 21, 2017 (NAN) Prof. Temitope Alonge, Chief Medical Director of University College Hospital(UCH), Ibadan says the hospital has concluded plan to open a Drug Information Centre (DIC) to reduce rate of drug abuse.

Alonge made this known in an interview with the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Ibadan on Wednesday.

According to Alonge, the importance of a drug information centre to the hospital’s Pharmacy Department could not be over-emphasised.

He said that the department was being run by professionals and it could compete with best standard practices in the world.

“A drug information centre is primarily affiliated with hospitals and colleges of pharmacy.

“The centre serves as an audience of primary health professionals, and meets consumers’ needs.

“Three general areas of responsibility are being addressed by the DIC and these include: service, education, and research.

“In the area of service, the DIC serves specific functions such as answering questions, supporting the pharmacy and therapeutics committee and preparing newsletters.

“The DIC educational responsibility often includes teaching pharmacy students on drug information skills.

“We intend to equip the centre with standard commercial information systems used in DIC, and this will go a long way to reduce abuse of drugs by patients.’’ (NAN)

[“Source-ndtv”]

Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes

PM IST

Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes (Getty Images)Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes (Getty Images)
Scientists from Japan have developed a wearable medical device that can help diabetic elderly or overweight people to lose fat and treat type 2 diabetes.

The device developed by Kumamoto University affects visceral fat loss and improves blood glucose (sugar) by helping overweight or elderly people exercise, which is effective for the treatment of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease of systemic organ failure due to chronic hyperglycemia and inflammation from the accumulation of excess visceral fat.

Metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia attenuate stress resistance in the human body and exacerbate insulin resistance.

The heat shock response (HSR) is activated as a response to stress in the human body, but its function decreased in those with type 2 diabetes.

A research team from the university has found that by restoring the function of HSP72 — the main protein of HSR — improved glucose-related abnormalities.

The researchers developed a belt-type medical device that uses a special type of rubber.

“This device is very easy to use since it simply attaches to the abdomen and it has a low-impact on the patient. One can expect the effects to be similar to exercise therapy,” Tatsuya Kondo, who led the research, said in a statement.

The team then performed a clinical trial of MES + HS on 40 obese men suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Results showed a decrease fasting glucose levels, a loss of visceral fat, improve insulin resistance and a significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values.

“Even in patients who have difficulty exercising, such as those who are overweight, elderly, or have some form of disability, this device can be expected to provide acceptable treatment in addition to conventional diabetic medical care,” Tatsuya added.

The research appeared in journal Scientific Reports

source”cnbc”

Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes

13, 2016, 05.00 PM IST

Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes (Getty Images)Wearable device can reduce fat, treat type 2 diabetes (Getty Images)
Scientists from Japan have developed a wearable medical device that can help diabetic elderly or overweight people to lose fat and treat type 2 diabetes.

The device developed by Kumamoto University affects visceral fat loss and improves blood glucose (sugar) by helping overweight or elderly people exercise, which is effective for the treatment of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease of systemic organ failure due to chronic hyperglycemia and inflammation from the accumulation of excess visceral fat.

Metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia attenuate stress resistance in the human body and exacerbate insulin resistance.

The heat shock response (HSR) is activated as a response to stress in the human body, but its function decreased in those with type 2 diabetes.

A research team from the university has found that by restoring the function of HSP72 — the main protein of HSR — improved glucose-related abnormalities.

The researchers developed a belt-type medical device that uses a special type of rubber.

“This device is very easy to use since it simply attaches to the abdomen and it has a low-impact on the patient. One can expect the effects to be similar to exercise therapy,” Tatsuya Kondo, who led the research, said in a statement.

The team then performed a clinical trial of MES + HS on 40 obese men suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Results showed a decrease fasting glucose levels, a loss of visceral fat, improve insulin resistance and a significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values.

“Even in patients who have difficulty exercising, such as those who are overweight, elderly, or have some form of disability, this device can be expected to provide acceptable treatment in addition to conventional diabetic medical care,” Tatsuya added.

source”cnbc”

Low Fat Diet May Reduce Migraine Headache

Low Fat Diet May Reduce Migraine Headache

NEW YORK: If you suffer from migraine, following a comprehensive diet that includes low fat may help to reduce those headaches, says a study conducted by an Indian-origin researcher.

“The beauty of these diets is that they not only reduce headaches, but may produce weight loss and prevent heart disease,” said Associate Professor Brinder Vij from the University of Cincinnati, US.

There have been three comprehensive diets so far whose very composition may prevent headaches, the study suggests.

These include low fat and low carbohydrate diets and those that increase the amount of Omega-3 fatty acids and decreases the Omega-6 fatty acids.

“Low fat diets restrict the amount of fat in the diet to less than 20 per cent of your daily energy requirements,” said Mr Vij.
“Low carbohydrate diets such as ketogenic diets can reduce headache frequency, but should not be considered without strict supervision. The diet limits carbohydrates more than the well-known Atkins diet,” Mr Vij added.

More than 180 studies on the subject of migraine and diet were reviewed for the purpose.

According to this study, published in The Journal of Head and Face Pain, withdrawal of caffeine by regular drinkers may also trigger headache.

Alcohol, too, especially vodka and red wine are also common dietary triggers for migraine.

Besides, Monosodium glutamate, which is a flavour enhancer used in a variety of processed foods — canned foods, soups, snack foods, salad dressing, seasoning salts, ketchup, barbecue sauce, and heavily in Chinese cooking.

source”cnbc”

Cannabis Use May Reduce Your Creativity: Study

Cannabis Use May Reduce Your Creativity: Study

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Cannabis Use May Reduce Your Creativity: Study

Photo for representational purpose.

Regular use of cannabis may impair your ability to think creatively and make you less aware of own mistakes, according to a new study that disproves the widespread belief that these drugs enhance creativity.

Mikael Kowal, psychologist at Leiden University in the Netherlands conducted experiments on 40 regular users of cannabis. The control group of 20 non-users was given a placebo.

Kowal studied the direct and chronic effects of cannabis on dopamine-related functions, such as creative thinking and the ability to recognise one’s own mistakes.

The brain chemical dopamine is important for the proper working of the brain and also plays a role in learning performance.

The study showed that cannabis users were less able to brainstorm, a mental process that is crucial for creative performance.

“There is a widespread belief among users that these drugs enhance creativity. This experiment disproves that belief,” said Kowal.

He also demonstrated that for chronic users the brain processes involved in monitoring mistakes also work less effectively.A high dose of cannabis seems to influence both the unconscious processing of mistakes and also the later and more conscious stages of error processing.

“It is important that we gather more knowledge about the effects of cannabis on a person’s ability to detect mistakes. This can help with putting together a treatment programme for drug addiction,” he said.

The research also indicated clear long-term effects that cannabis disrupts the activity of dopamine in the brain. With chronic users a significant reduction was seen in the frequency of spontaneous eye blinking, an indication of a reduction in dopamine production.

The conclusion from other scientific research is that regular cannabis use does not necessarily have disastrous effects for the take-up of dopamine.

It may well be that the age at which cannabis is first used is a crucial factor, Kowal said.

The type of cannabis and the way neurobiological processes interact with one another can also result in individual differences.

source”cnbc”

People Who Improve Their Diets Reduce Diabetes Risk

People Who Improve Their Diets Reduce Diabetes RiskAdopting a healthier diet may lower type 2 diabetes risk over time, while a worsening diet is often accompanied by increased risk, according to a new U.S. study.

“Although recent public health recommendations have increasingly focused on advocating overall diet quality improvement, evidence has been limited on whether changing overall diet in adulthood has a long-term preventative impact on diabetes prevention in general population,” said lead author Sylvia H. Ley of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston.

“We provide evidence that improving diet quality in adulthood is associated with type 2 diabetes prevention, while worsening diet quality is associated increased risk for diabetes,” she said by email.

The researchers analyzed data on more than 124,000 adults who did not have diabetes at the start of three large, long-term studies of lifestyle and health outcomes and who were observed for at least 20 years. Participants rated their diet quality on a healthy eating index every four years.

There were 9,361 cases of type 2 diabetes during the studies. When dietary quality scores declined by more than 10 percent between four-year surveys, diabetes risk went up by about 34 percent, the researchers found. Improving diet quality by the same amount led to a 16 percent decrease in diabetes risk.

A “healthier” diet included higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and legumes and lower intakes of red or processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice, trans fat and sodium, as well as moderate alcohol consumption.

“Cumulative scientific evidence has supported that improving and maintaining overall quality of healthful diet is beneficial for long-term chronic disease prevention,” Ley said. “Chasing after the latest short-term fix is not likely to offer sustained benefits in the long term.”

Improving diet was associated with decreased diabetes risk regardless of how a person ate at the start of the study or how much excess weight they carried. Over time, losing weight explained some, but not all, of the change in diabetes risk, according to the results published in Diabetes Care.

“Improving overall diet quality as an adult regardless of where you start, whether you have poor or better initial diet quality, seems to be beneficial for diabetes prevention,” Ley told Reuters Health.

“It is known that Western dietary patterns and diets with high glycemic index are associated with a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, whereas the opposite has been observed for prudent dietary patterns and Mediterranean diets,” said Jordi Salas-Salvado of Rovira i Virgili University in Tarragona, Spain, who was not part of the new study.

“Three key points to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes are: stay lean, follow a frugal diet and include plenty and large variety of vegetables,” he told Reuters Health by email.

Diet quality, as well as body weight, are important for diabetes risk, said Dr. Marc Y. Donath of University Hospital Basel in Switzerland, who also was not part of the new study.

“However it remains to be shown how important are qualitative changes in diet compared to calorie restriction,” Donath told Reuters Health by email. “Based on clinical (experience), my impression is that changes in body weight are much more important.”

source”gsmarena”

New lipid-lowering drugs help patients reduce LDL cholesterol

A recent analysis indicates that adding new therapies called anti-PCSK9 antibodies to other lipid-lowering treatments can help patients lower their LDL cholesterol levels.

Mutations in the gene that encodes PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) have been linked to high cholesterol. PCSK9 causes elevated blood levels of LDL cholesterol because it binds to the LDL receptor. Two anti-PCSK9 antibodies have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency: alirocumab and evolocumab.

Researchers identified 12 studies of alirocumab and nine of evolocumab, including more than 10,000 patients, most of whom were taking statins but still had elevated cholesterol. All studies demonstrated a reduction in LDL cholesterol with the anti-PCSK9 antibodies. Up to 87% of patients receiving alirocumab and up to 98% receiving evolocumab reached LDL cholesterol goals.

“Both anti-PSCK9 antibodies have cardiovascular outcome studies ongoing with results expected in 2017. We are looking forward to them since it is rather unusual to have results of large outcome trials so soon after the launch of a drug in the market,” said Prof. Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, lead author of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study.

[“source -cncb”]

top IT groups will reduce hiring in 2016-17

The gross hiring in the top IT agencies ought to see a massive reduction on this monetary 12 months(FY) because the attrition level has eased in this space, says a record.

Kotak Institutional Equities report: What it says

The report of the Kotak Institutional Equities reads that in March, the attrition of pinnacle IT corporationshas declined sequentially as well as on yearly foundation, apart from HCL technologies
“Gross hiring in fiscal 2016-17 may want to lessen on lower attrition and blessings of productivenessprojects,” the record added
The quarterly annualised attrition of HCL technology multiplied from 320 bps to 31 percent, even as itbecame flat on a quarterly basis
The Kotak Institutional Equities stated in their studies notice that “Attrition level at Infosys and Wipro is at 2 to 3 12 months low. TCS’ attrition has additionally eased after an uptick within the first half of offinancial year 2015-sixteen
“The modern-day attrition degree is close to benign level (13 to fifteen%) just about ok for handling theworker pyramid with none execution troubles,” it added
inside the fiscal 12 months 2016-17, the total hiring of pinnacle IT organizations could be lower in regards to worker retention, consciousness on utilisation improvement, and productivenessdevelopment driven by using automation projects
in step with the record, TCS and Infosys have indicated discount in general hiring numbers and shift in favour of campus or freshers; laterals hiring might be adjusted.
however, the pinnacle IT businesses have employed 67,540 employees inside the financial yr 2015-sixteen along with TCS which has hired 34,000 personnel by myself.