MINUTE OF EXERCISE A DAY COULD PREVENT OSTEOPOROSIS, FINDS STUDY

woman-exercise-minute-bone-density.jpg

No more excuses

Many people think that getting fit means devoting your life to the gym and slogging it out for hours. And unsurprisingly, that can be pretty off-putting.

But increasingly we’re realising that short workouts can be much more effective than long ones, if you just know what to do.

It turns out that just a minute’s exercise a day can have a hugely beneficial impact on your health.

According to a study by the Universities of Exeter and Leicester, women who do 60-120 seconds of high-intensity weight-bearing exercise a day have four per cent better bone density than those who do less than a minute.

Women who exercise for over two minutes have even stronger bones, with density six per cent higher than those who do under a minute.

After the age of 30, people tend to lose more bone mass than they gain, and the higher your bone density, the lower your likelihood of developing osteoporosis.

You’re also less likely to have bone fractures in old age.

The study was conducted on over 2,500 female participants, and it’s women who are most at risk of osteoporosis, with bone density declining significantly after the menopause.

According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation, a tenth of women aged 60 are affected by osteoporosis, and this rises to two-thirds of women aged 90.

What’s more, one in three women over the age of 50 and one in five men of the same age will suffer from osteoporotic fractures.

But further research needs to be done to work out how best one should undertake exercise in order to improve bone density the most.

“We don’t yet know whether it’s better to accumulate this small amount of exercise in bits throughout each day or all at once, and also whether a slightly longer bout of exercise on one or two days per week is just as good as one to two minutes a day,” said lead author Dr Victoria Stiles.

“But there’s a clear link between this kind of high-intensity, weight-bearing exercise and better bone health in women.”

To reach their conclusions, the researchers asked their participants to wear activity monitors for a week and then compared this data to measurements of their bone health.

The activity data was broken down into single seconds to understand how people move in their daily lives.

“We wanted to make every second count in our analysis, because short snippets of high-intensity activity are more beneficial to bone health than longer, continuous periods,” Stiles said.

“We were careful not to ignore short bursts of activity throughout the day.”

Many people, although not consciously exercising, engage in non-exercise activity thermogenesis – or NEAT – over the course of the day, and this can be enough to improve your health.

If you want to increase your bone health, start with simply trying to walk more, and from there you can incorporate short bouts of running too.

There are limitations to the study’s findings though.

“Because this is a cross-sectional study – which assesses data taken from a subset of the population at a particular point in time – we can’t be sure whether the high-intensity physical activity led to better bone health, or whether those with better bone health do more of this exercise,” Stiles clarified.

“However, it seems likely that just one to two minutes of running a day is good for bone health.”

It’s not the first study to suggest you can drastically improve your health with just a minute’s exercise either: earlier this year, researchers from McMaster University found that 60 seconds of intense exercise broken up into 20 second blasts as part of a ten-minute workout can be as effective as a 45 minute endurance workout.

No more telling yourself you just don’t have the time to keep fit then.

[“Source-independent”]

Mediterranean style diet may prevent dementia

The Mediterranean diet is easy to find in the grocery store, contains nutrients that are known to enhance longevity and has other health benefits that are backed by peer-reviewed, scientific studies. Broccoli makes the list because it's one of nature's most nutrient-dense foods, with only 30 calories per cup. That means you get a ton of hunger-curbing fiber and polyphenols -- antioxidants that detoxify cell-damaging chemicals in your body -- with each serving.

(CNN)Meals from the sunny Mediterranean have been linked to stronger bones, a healthier heart and longer life, along with a reduced risk for diabetes and high blood pressure.

Now you can add lowering your risk for dementia to the ever growing list of reasons to follow the Mediterranean diet or one of its dietary cousins.
New research being presented at the International Alzheimer’s Association conference in London this week found healthy older adults who followed the Mediterranean or the similar MIND diet lowered their risk of dementia by a third.
Mediterranean diet linked to lower risk of heart attack, stroke

Mediterranean diet linked to lower risk of heart attack, stroke
“Eating a healthy plant-based diet is associated with better cognitive function and around 30% to 35% lower risk of cognitive impairment during aging,” said lead author Claire McEvoy, of the University of California, San Francisco’s School of Medicine.
McEvoy stressed that because the study was conducted in a nationally representative older population “the findings are relevant to the general public.”
“While 35% is a greater than expected decrease for a lifestyle choice, I am not surprised,” said Rudolph Tanzi, who directs the Genetics and Aging Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital and recently co-authored a book with Deepak Chopra on genes and aging called “Super Genes.”
“The activity of our genes is highly dependent on four main factors: diet, exercise, sleep and stress management,” said Tanzi, who was not involved in the study. “Of these, perhaps diet is most important.”
Eating the Mediterranean diet may lead to a longer life
McEvoy’s study investigated at the eating habits of nearly 6,000 older Americans with an average age of 68. After adjusting for age, gender, race, low educational attainment and lifestyle and health issues — such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, depression, smoking and physical inactivity — researchers found that those who followed the MIND or Mediterranean diet had a 30% to 35% lower risk of cognitive impairment.
The more people stayed on those diets, said McEvoy, the better they functioned cognitively.
Those who marginally followed the diet also benefited, but by a much smaller margin. They were 18% less likely to exhibit signs of cognitive impairment.

What are the Mediterranean and MIND diets?

Forget lasagne, pizza, spanakopita and lamb souvlaki — they are not on the daily menu of those who live by the sunny Mediterranean seaside.
The true diet is simple, plant-based cooking, with the majority of each meal focused on fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans and seeds, with a few nuts and a heavy emphasis on extra virgin olive oil. Say goodbye to refined sugar or flour and fats other than olive oil, such as butter, are consumed rarely, if at all.
Meat can make a rare appearance, but usually only to flavor a dish. Instead, meals may include eggs, dairy and poultry, but in much smaller portions than in the traditional Western diet. Fish, however, are a staple.
The MIND diet takes the best brain foods of the Mediterranean diet and the famous salt-reducing DASH diet, and puts them together. MIND encourages a focus on eating from 10 healthy food groups while rejecting foods from five unhealthy groups.
MIND stands for Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, with DASH standing for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
MIND was developed by Martha Clare Morris, a nutritional epidemiologist at Chicago’s Rush University Medical Center in the US.
Is the Mediterranean diet good for kids, too?

Is the Mediterranean diet good for kids, too?
Those who follow MIND reject butter and stick margarine, red meats, cheeses, fried or fast food and sweets. Instead, they eat at least six servings a week of green leafy vegetables such as spinach or kale, and at least one serving a day of another vegetable. Three servings a day of whole grains are a must.
They also add in at least three servings of beans, two or more servings of berries, two servings of chicken or turkey, and once serving of fish each week. Olive oil is their main cooking ingredient, and they drink a glass of wine a day.
Morris has some powerful stats behind her diet.
In 2015, she studied 923 Chicago-area seniors and found those who say they followed the diet religiously had a 53% lower chance of getting Alzheimer’s, while those who followed it moderately lowered their risk by about 35%. Follow-up observational studies showed similar benefits.
Morris and her colleagues are currently recruiting volunteers for a three-year clinical study to try to prove the link.

Additional evidence

A second study presented at the conference also examined the impact of the MIND diet. Researchers from Wake Forest School of Medicine followed 7,057 women, average age 71, over almost 10 years and found those who most closely followed the MIND diet had a 34% reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.
High-fat Mediterranean diet, not low-fat one, is how you lose weight

High-fat Mediterranean diet, not low-fat one, is how you lose weight
A third study at the conference looked at the dietary habits of 2,223 dementia-free Swedish adults over six years who followed the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) diet, which avoids sweets and fatty and processed foods. Instead, the diet emphasizes eating non-root vegetables, apple/pears/peaches, pasta/rice, poultry, fish, vegetable oils, tea and water, and light to moderate wine intake.
Swedes who stuck to the diet at a moderate or higher level preserved their cognitive function better than those who ate more processed and fatty foods.
Lastly, a fourth study examined MRI brain scans of 330 cognitively normal adults, with an average age of 79, and found eating foods that raise inflammation in the body — such as sweets, processed foods and fried and fatty foods — raised the risk for a shrinking “aging” brain and lower cognitive function.
That comes as no surprise to neurologist Rudy Tanzi.
“Foods that keep blood pressure normal, provide us with antioxidants, and maintain healthy bacteria in our gut, or microbiome, will serve to help keep chronic inflammation in check in the brain and entire body,” said Tanzi.
Despite the similarities of the results, experts point out that all of this research is observational, meaning that it is based on reports by individuals as to what they eat. To prove the connection between diet and dementia risk, said McEvoy, researchers will need to move to scientifically controlled experiments.
“I think the studies, taken together, suggest a role for high quality dietary patterns in brain health and for protection against cognitive decline during aging,” said McEvoy. “Diet is modifiable, and in light of these studies we need clinical trials to test whether changing diet can improve or maintain cognition.”
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Until that definite proof is available, say experts, there’s no harm in using this information to makes changes in your diet and lifestyle that could help protect your brain.
“Although the idea that a healthy diet can help protect against cognitive decline as we age is not new, the size and length of these four studies demonstrate how powerful good dietary practices may be in maintaining brain health and function,” said Keith Fargo, Alzheimer’s Association Director of Scientific Programs and Outreach.
Tanzi agrees. “It’s about time we started placing a greater emphasis on what we eat as we strive to have our ‘healthspan’ keep up with our increasing ‘lifespan’.”
[“Source-edition”]

Parts of Mediterranean diet shown to prevent colorectal cancer

mediterranean diet components

New research singles out a few key elements of the Mediterranean diet that are most important for colorectal health.
The benefits of the so-called Mediterranean diet have been hailed in the news over recent years. Now, new research looks closely at the elements of the diet that could help to prevent the risk of colorectal cancer.

Among many other benefits, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to lower the risk of colorectal cancer. But the specifics of this beneficial role have not been studied in depth.

New research – presented at the ESMO 19th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, held in Barcelona, Spain – singles out the few components of the Mediterranean diet key for preventing colorectal cancer. The first author of the study is Naomi Fliss Isakov, Ph.D., of the Tel-Aviv Medical Center in Israel.

More specifically, the research looks at the link between the components of the diet taken both separately and in combination, as well as the risk of developing advanced colorectal polyps.

Colorectal cancer tends to develop from advanced polyps, or adenoma. However, the chances of polyps becoming malignant depend on various factors, including size, structure, and location.

Zooming in on the Mediterranean diet

Dr. Isakov and team examined 808 people who were undergoing either screening or diagnostic colonoscopies.

The participants were aged between 40 and 70 years old and were not at a high risk of colorectal cancer. The researchers took anthropometric measurements – such as body mass index (BMI) and height – of the participants, and they asked them to fill in a food frequency questionnaire. They also took part in a medical and lifestyle interview.

The researchers defined adherence to the Mediterranean diet as an above-average consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, as well as fish and poultry.

A below-median intake of red meat, alcohol, and soft drinks was also considered to be a key component of the diet. A Mediterranean diet was also described as having “a high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids.”

For the purposes of the study, the researchers defined advanced polyps as adenomas larger than 10 millimeters in size, with a “high-grade dysplasia or villous histology.”

As the American Cancer Society (ACS) explain, the term “dysplasia” refers to the abnormal aspect of the polyps. “High-grade dysplasia” is a term used to describe polyps that appear abnormal or cancer-like. The ACS also note that larger adenomas tend to have a villous growth pattern and are more likely to lead to cancer.

Dr. Isakov and colleagues also examined healthy controls who did not have any polyps, either in the past or at the time of the study.

More fish, fruit reduces risk

Having compared individuals with polyp-free colonoscopies and those whose colonoscopy showed advanced polyps, the authors found a clear association between components of the Mediterranean diet and the risk of colorectal cancer.

People with advanced polyps reported consuming fewer elements of the Mediterranean diet. More specifically, the average was 1.9 Mediterranean diet components in the advanced polyps group, compared with 4.5 components in the polyp-free group.

Surprisingly, even two or three elements of the diet correlated with a 50 percent reduction in the risk of advanced polyps, compared with consuming no key components at all.

Additionally, the risk further decreased as the number of Mediterranean elements increased. The more elements of the Mediterranean diet people consumed, the lower were the chances of advanced polyps showing up in their colonoscopies.

The researchers adjusted for other risk factors associated with colorectal cancer and found that increased fish and fruit consumption, together with a low intake of soft drinks, was most likely to reduce the risk of advanced polyps.

We found that each one of these three choices was associated with a little more than 30 percent reduced odds of a person having an advanced, pre-cancerous colorectal lesion, compared to people who did not eat any of the MD [Mediterranean diet] components.”

Naomi Fliss Isakov, Ph.D.

She concluded, “Among people who made all three healthy choices the benefit was compounded to almost 86 percent reduced odds.”

ESMO spokesperson Dr. Dirk Arnold, of the Instituto CUF de Oncologia in Lisbon, Portugal, also comments on the findings, saying, “This large population-based cohort-control study impressively confirms the hypothesis of an association of colorectal polyps with diets and other lifestyle factors.”

“This stands in line with other very recent findings on nutritive effects, such as the potential protective effects of nut consumption and vitamin D supplementation which have been shown earlier this year.”

“However,” adds Dr. Arnold, “it remains to be seen whether these results are associated with reduced mortality, and it is also unclear if, and when a dietary change would be beneficial.”

Next, the authors plan to investigate the effects of the Mediterranean diet in a group at high risk of developing colorectal cancer.

[“Source-medicalnewstoday”]

How to prevent hair loss for men

How to prevent hair loss for men

Losing your hair to male pattern baldness can seriously knock your confidence and self-esteem. Thankfully, there are many solutions available today that can help you fight balding and keep your full head of hair. From surgical procedures to topical creams or oral medication, there are many methods for guys to choose from when it comes to beating hair loss and retaining their confidence. Here are some of the best methods of dealing with hair loss.

#1. Scar-Free Hair Transplants

Many guys want to do something about their receding hairline and get back to their normal head of hair, but they’re particularly worried about the prospect of getting a hair transplant since they don’t want to be left with a scar at the back of their head. Whilst longer hair can easily cover any scars left by a hair transplant, men who prefer to wear their hair shorter are understandably worried about the prospect of visible evidence of the procedure. In comparison to the traditional ‘strip method’ of hair transplants, this method, known as follicular unit extraction (FUE) involves harvesting grafts one at a time using tiny punches that will be virtually undetectable once healed. For more information on a hair transplant NYC, visit NY Metro Vein.

#2. Laser Light Therapy

Laser light therapy is well-known for its effectiveness when it comes to hair removal, but it can also be useful for encouraging your hair to grow and stopping the signs of male pattern baldness. Laser light can be used to encourage the protein synthesis needed for healthy hair growth and regeneration, along with stimulating more blood flow to the scalp, resulting in better growth. However, bear in mind that this treatment doesn’t always work for everybody. In general, it is the best option for guys who have noticed receding hair and want to maintain what they have left, along with encouraging some regrowth. If you’re considering laser light therapy then the research is solid; studies have shown that around 80% of people who use laser treatment for hair loss experience less shedding and around half even get thicker hair.

#3. Medications and Medicated Hair Products

When it comes to the various medications and other products that you can use to help prevent hair loss and encourage regrowth, there is a range of options to choose from. Amongst men, over-the-counter drugs such as Finasteride are very popular, since they can be easily obtained from your local pharmacy and offer a range of further health benefits on top of preventing hair loss, such as aiding in the prevention of prostate cancer. This drug is also known as Propecia. It works by blocking the production of a particular male hormone in the scalp, which contributes to hair loss. If you’re worried about side effects then you’ll be glad to hear that the risks are minimal when taking this medication; there’s a tiny 2% chance that you will experience sexual problems, but this should immediately disappear if you stop taking the pills.

[“Source-standardmedia”]

Eat mushrooms to prevent risk of Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease

ANI | Jan 25, 2017, 04.30 PM IST

 

<p>Eat mushrooms to prevent risk of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease<br></p>Eat mushrooms to prevent risk of Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease

According to researchers, certain edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds that may enhance nerve growth in the brain and protect against neurotoxic stimuli such as inflammation that contribute to Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

The study, published in Journal of Medicinal Food supports the potential role of mushrooms as functional foods to reduce or delay development of age-related neurodegeneration.

The researchers from University of Malaya in Malaysia discussed the scientific findings related to the health benefits of edible and culinary mushrooms.

It is estimated that as many as 5.1 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease and, worldwide, 42 million cases are expected by 2020.

Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases has remained largely ineffective.

The authors focus on the activity of bioactive components of mushrooms that may offer neuroprotective and cognitive benefits.

“In contrast to the body of literature on food ingredients that may benefit cardiometabolic diseases and cancer, very few studies have focused on food that may benefit neurodegenerative diseases,” explained study author Sampath Parthasarathy from University of Central Florida.

They found that each mushroom increased production of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) – a molecule primarily involved in regulating growth, maintenance, proliferation and survival of certain nerve cells in the brain.

“The current study might stimulate the identification of more food materials that are neuroprotective,” Parthasarathy added.

source”cnbc”

Hypertension in late life may prevent dementia

Hypertension in late life may prevent dementia (Robert Llewellyn/Getty Images)Hypertension in late life may prevent dementia (Robert Llewellyn/Getty Images)
Individuals who develop high blood pressure at the age 80 or older – known as the ‘oldest old’ – may have decreased risk of dementia after age 90, a study has found.

Hypertension and other heart health risk factors are generally thought to increase dementia risk.

“The study found that hypertension is not a risk factor for dementia in people age 90 or over, but is actually associated with reduced dementia risk,” said lead author Maria Corrada, Professor at the University of California, Irvine.

The results revealed that participants who reported hypertension onset at age 80 to 89 were 42 per cent less likely to develop dementia after age 90 compared to those who reported no history of high blood pressure.

Participants whose hypertension began at age 90 or older were at even lower risk – 63 per cent less likely to develop dementia.

Dementia risk declined as hypertension severity increased – a trend consistent with the idea that, in this age group, hypertension may protect the brain from insults that lead to dementia, the researchers observed.

Blood pressure may need to reach a certain level to maintain adequate blood flow in the brain for normal cognition, and that this level may change with age, the researchers explained as the potential reasons for the association between hypertension and dementia risk.

Another possible reason may be that the blood pressure drops before the onset of dementia as a consequence of brain cell deterioration, and thus older people who are not developing dementia will have higher blood pressure.

The results were published online in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association

source”cnbc”

Drug,to,prevent,pre-term,birth,shows,promise

In a ray of hope for preventing pre-term birth, researchers found that use of a drug in pregnant mice entirely stopped premature birth and reduced infant fatalities.

Pre-term birth (being born at less than 37 weeks’ gestation) is a major cause of death in children under five years of age.

“Our studies give us some encouragement that it may be possible to prevent many pre-term births, by using drugs that target the body’s inflammatory mechanisms, probably in combination with antibiotics as well,” said lead study author Sarah Robertson, Director of the Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide in Australia.

The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, tested a drug known for its abilities to switch off pro-inflammatory pathways.

The main causes of pre-term birth are bacterial infection (in around 50 per cent of cases), physical injury or stress causing placental damage, carrying twins or triplets, or from environmental toxins such as air pollution.

Each of these is associated with what researchers describe as an “inflammatory cascade”, which can activate the mother’s immune response and ultimately lead to spontaneous pre-term birth.

This inflammatory cascade is triggered by an immune receptor known as Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4), responding to infection, physical injury or stress.

TLR4 is critical to the body’s immune response but it also produces a number of pro-inflammatory effects that are harmful to pregnancy.

“TLR4 is a trigger of spontaneous pre-term birth,” Robertson said.

“For this reason, we wanted to test a drug known for its ability to block the actions of TLR4, to see if that would also prevent pre-term birth,” Robertson noted.

The drug tested in this study is known as (+)-naloxone.

“We found that by treating pregnant mice with (+)-naloxone, it provided complete protection against pre-term birth triggered by bacteria. It also protected against stillbirth and infant death shortly after birth, and led to a correction in birth weight among infants that would otherwise be born at very low birth weight,” Robertson said.

source”cnbc”

Even Low Physical Fitness Can Help Prevent Heart Diseases

Even Low Physical Fitness Can Help Prevent Heart Diseases

TORONTO: Even low physical fitness, up to 20 per cent below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to prevent risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and obesity that affect people with cardiovascular disease, a new study has claimed.

“This is great news for people with heart disease who have difficulty adhering to a regular – mainly aerobic – exercise programme,” said Daniel Curnier, a professor at the University of Montreal (UdeM) in Canada, who led the study.

“Small improvements in their fitness level are enough.

You don’t have to be a great athlete to benefit from these effects,” said Curnier.

“We know from many studies that good physical fitness reduces cardiovascular mortality, and that physical activity has a positive impact on cardiovascular risk factors following a rehab programme,” said Maxime Caru, a doctoral student in human kinetics at UdeM and lead author of the study.

To measure the impact of physical fitness on heart disease risk factors, the researchers selected 205 men and 44 women with heart disease, including coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and heart valve disease, and had them undergo a cycle ergometer (stationary bike) stress test to determine their fitness level.

The results showed that normal physical fitness, even up to 20 per cent below the population average, is sufficient to have a preventive effect on five of the eight risk factors affecting people with cardiovascular disease – abdominal circumference, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and excess weight.
Normal physical fitness means having the physical fitness of a person of the same weight, height, sex and age, and who is disease-free.

The easiest way to achieve this is to follow the recommendations of the World Health Organisation – 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise, researchers said.

Depression is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease because cardiac patients who have experienced a depressive episode have recurring heart problems.

The results of the study have demonstrated the importance of a good fitness level, before and after a heart attack, to produce the preventive effect on depression.

The study sheds new light on the overall role of physical fitness in the development of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease.

However, the researchers stress the importance for cardiac patients to consult their doctor before embarking on an exercise programme and to consult a kinesiologist.

The study appears in the Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention.

source”cnbc”

Babies Should Sleep In Parents’ Room To Help Prevent Sleep-Related Death

Babies Should Sleep In Parents' Room To Help Prevent Sleep-Related DeathInfants should sleep in the same bedroom as their parents for at least the first six months of their lives to minimize the risk of sleep-related deaths, according to new guidelines from US paediatricians.

Ideally, babies should stay in their parents’ room at night for a full year, according to recommendations released today by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Babies shouldn’t share a bed with parents, however, because that increases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the guidelines stress. The safest spot for infant sleep is on a firm surface such as a crib or bassinet without any soft bedding, bumpers or pillows.

Sleeping in the same room, but not in the same bed, may reduce babies’ risk of SIDS by up to 50 percent, said Dr Lori Feldman-Winter, a co-author of the AAP guidelines and pediatrics researcher at Cooper Medical School of Rowan University in Camden, New Jersey.

“Bed-sharing is potentially hazardous for SIDS, and this is most important for infants under four months of age and those who were premature or low birth weight,” Feldman-Winter added by email.

The new guidelines also encourage skin-to-skin contact as soon as possible after birth to help prevent SIDS.

With caesarean deliveries, mothers can do this with their babies as soon as they are awake and alert after surgery and, in the meantime, fathers or other caregivers can provide skin-to-skin contact to new-borns.

Breastfeeding can also help prevent SIDS, but mothers still shouldn’t sleep with babies in their beds to make nursing more convenient in the middle of the night, according to the guidelines, published in Pediatrics.

SIDS has become much less common in recent decades as doctors have urged parents to put infants to sleep on their backs without pillows or other soft bedding and toys that could pose a suffocation risk. But it still remains a leading cause of infant mortality, killing about 3,500 babies a year in the US alone, according to the AAP.

These deaths can be caused by a variety of factors including brain abnormalities or respiratory problems in babies as well as sleeping face down on fluffy surfaces or surfaces that pose a risk of suffocation.

“The majority of sleep-related infant deaths occur when babies are sleeping on their stomach, or with soft bedding nearby, or when bed-sharing with their mother, other caregiver or other family members,” said Dr Fern Hauck, a paediatrics researcher at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville who serves on the AAP task force on SIDS.

“The new guidelines emphasize the importance of placing infants on their back for EVERY sleep, naptime or night-time, at home, at grandma’s, at day-care and placing babies in a crib or bassinet with a firm mattress, without pillows, soft/loose blankets, bumper pads, or other soft objects, in mother’s/parent’s room close to her bed,” Hauck added by email. “All of these steps will allow for open flow of air to the baby.”

Roughly one in five sleep-related infant deaths occur outside the home, according to a separate study published in Pediatrics.

Researchers examined data on almost 12,000 infant sleep-related deaths from 2004 to 2014.

Compared to babies who died at home, infants who died outside the home were more likely to be found sleeping on their stomachs or in a stroller or car seat instead of a crib or bassinet, the study found. They were also less likely to be with their parents.

“Parents often assume that when other people take care of their infant, they also know about infant sleep safety. That is definitely not true,” said senior study author Dr. Jeffrey Colvin, a pediatrics researcher at Children’s Mercy Kansas City.

“Parents need to make sure that everyone taking care of their baby follows the A-B-Cs of safe sleep,” Colvin added by email. “Their infant should always be placed to sleep ‘A’ Alone, with no bed sharing or objects in the sleep area, ‘B’ on their back, and ‘C’ in a crib or bassinet only.”

source”cnbc”

Even Low Physical Fitness Can Help Prevent Heart Diseases

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Even Low Physical Fitness Can Help Prevent Heart Diseases

Even low physical fitness, up to 20 per cent below the average for healthy people.

TORONTO:  Even low physical fitness, up to 20 per cent below the average for healthy people, is sufficient to prevent risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and obesity that affect people with cardiovascular disease, a new study has claimed.

“This is great news for people with heart disease who have difficulty adhering to a regular – mainly aerobic – exercise programme,” said Daniel Curnier, a professor at the University of Montreal (UdeM) in Canada, who led the study.

“Small improvements in their fitness level are enough.

You don’t have to be a great athlete to benefit from these effects,” said Curnier.

“We know from many studies that good physical fitness reduces cardiovascular mortality, and that physical activity has a positive impact on cardiovascular risk factors following a rehab programme,” said Maxime Caru, a doctoral student in human kinetics at UdeM and lead author of the study.

To measure the impact of physical fitness on heart disease risk factors, the researchers selected 205 men and 44 women with heart disease, including coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and heart valve disease, and had them undergo a cycle ergometer (stationary bike) stress test to determine their fitness level.

The results showed that normal physical fitness, even up to 20 per cent below the population average, is sufficient to have a preventive effect on five of the eight risk factors affecting people with cardiovascular disease – abdominal circumference, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and excess weight.

Normal physical fitness means having the physical fitness of a person of the same weight, height, sex and age, and who is disease-free.

The easiest way to achieve this is to follow the recommendations of the World Health Organisation – 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise, researchers said.

Depression is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease because cardiac patients who have experienced a depressive episode have recurring heart problems.

The results of the study have demonstrated the importance of a good fitness level, before and after a heart attack, to produce the preventive effect on depression.

The study sheds new light on the overall role of physical fitness in the development of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease.

However, the researchers stress the importance for cardiac patients to consult their doctor before embarking on an exercise programme and to consult a kinesiologist.

The study appears in the Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention

source”cnbc”