New drug can create ‘good’ fat to combat obesity

<p>New drug can create 'good' fat to combat obesity<br></p>New drug can create ‘good’ fat to combat obesity

Scientists have identified a new drug that can create beneficial “brown” or “good” fat to boost metabolism, combat obesityand Type II diabetes.

Researchers from Gladstone Institutes San Francisco in the US treated mice with a drug called bexarotene (Bex) and found they had more “brown fat, faster metabolisms and less body weight gain, even after being fed a high-calorie diet”.

“All current weight loss drugs control appetite and there is nothing on the market that targets energy expenditure. Introducing brown fat is an exciting new approach to treating obesity and associated metabolic diseases, such as diabetes,” said Baoming Nie from the Gladstone Institutes.

Scientists used cellular reprogramming to convert muscle precursor cells and white fat cells into “brown” fat cells and said it could be a new way to combat obesity and type II diabetes.

“Bex acts on a protein called retinoid X receptor (RXR), which controls a network of other cellular proteins. Specifically, when RXR was stimulated by Bex, it turned on genes needed to produce “brown” fat and turned off genes linked to white fat or muscle,” the study explained.

Brown fat, unlike white fat, helps the body burn energy through heat.

“However, while Bex is very effective at creating brown fat cells, it is not a very specific drug, and there are several potential side effects that may arise from taking it,” said Sheng Ding from Gladstone.

Researchers noted that infants are born with small amounts of brown fat, but as they age, most of it disappears.

“In adults, people with higher amounts of brown fat have lower body mass, and increasing brown fat by as little as 50 grams could lead up to a 10 to 20 pound weight loss in one year,” noted the study published in the journal Cell Reports


This gene could help fight obesity

, 2016, 03.01 PM IST

This gene could help fight obesity (Getty Images)This gene could help fight obesity (Getty Images)
Scientists have identified a gene that could protect against obesity by increasing the feeling of fullness, a finding that may lead to potential new therapies to treat eating-related disorders.
Researchers from King’s College London and Imperial College London in the UK tested a high-fat diet, containing a fermentable carbohydrate, and a control diet on mice. They looked at the effect on food intake of those with and without the FFAR2 receptor, a protein coding gene.

The results showed that mice fed the diet containing fermentable carbohydrate were protected against obesity. However, this protection was lost when the FFAR2 receptor was not present.

Indeed, those with the receptor showed an increase of 130% in the satiety inducing gut hormone peptide YY, as well as an increased density of cells containing PYY, leading to an increased feeling of fullness.

“Obesity is currently one of the most serious global threats to human health, determined by genetic background, diet and lifestyle,” said lead author Gavin Bewick from King’s College.

“We know that supplementing your diet with non-digestible carbohydrates reduce appetite and body weight gain, but in this study we demonstrate for the first time the essential role of the FFAR2 receptor in enabling specific dietary constituents to reduce food intake and protect against obesity,” said Bewick.

“With this discovery, we can start to look at whether we can use diet or pharmaceutical means to change the cellular make-up of the gut in order to treat a host of disorders,” he said.

“This a major step forward in understanding the relationship between diet and appetite regulation. Until a few years ago dietary fibre was a thought of as inert, and having very little effect on physiology,” said Gary Frost from Imperial College.

So the fact it actually has a major impact on cells that help control appetite regulation in the colon is amazing,” Frost said.

“Our challenge now is to translate this into a technology that we can apply to humans. We need to understand how we can use the knowledge and insight gained to develop food systems that are attractive to a large percentage of the population,” he added. The study appears in the journal Nature Reviews Endocrinology.


New Molecule To Fight Obesity Identified

New Molecule To Fight Obesity Identified

NEW YORK: Activating the oestrogen — the primary female sex hormone — receptor-beta protein with a chemical has the potential to increase metabolism as well as help reduce obesity, say researchers including one of Indian-origin.

The findings showed that the activation of a chemical called beta-LGND2 by the oestrogen receptor-beta can help reduce obesity and metabolic diseases in mice by converting bad fat (white fat) into good fat (brown fat).

This is significant as brown fat increases metabolism and may facilitate weight loss, the researchers said.

“Although there is a general misperception that obesity is not a life-threatening condition, obesity is the underlying cause for several diseases that could result in mortality,” said Ramesh Narayanan, a researcher at the University of Tennessee in the US.

“Safe and effective treatment for obesity is highly needed, and targeting oestrogen receptor-beta might be one of the strategies to safely combat obesity,” Narayanan added.
To make their discovery, Narayanan and colleagues used three groups of mice.

One group was fed with normal rodent diet, while two groups were fed with high-fat diet to make them obese. One of the two high-fat diet-fed groups was treated with beta-LGND2.

The beta-LGND2-treated mice were significantly leaner than the other mice fed on high-fat diet and they also had higher body temperature and oxygen consumption, indicating higher metabolism rate.


Obesity And Arthritis Are Linked: Medical Experts

Obesity And Arthritis Are Linked: Medical Experts

MUMBAI: Various studies have linked rising cases of arthritis with obesity which occurs due to poor lifestyle, food habits and lack of physical exercise, according to medical experts.

On the occasion of ‘World Arthritis Day’ observed on October 12, experts said arthritis, a disease of joints, is an autoimmune disorder and has been on the rise in last decade.

Most severely affected by osteoarthritis are the knee joints, which may even require replacement.

Bangalore-based Obesity Surgery expert M G Bhat said,

“Various studies in Mayo Clinic and Harvard Medical School have demonstrated the connection between obesity and arthritis. In fact every 2-3 of 10 patients we see for obesity-related issues, also come with arthritic problems. Also, weight-bearing joints like knees and hips undergo extra strain in case of obese patients, worsening their condition.”

According to a study by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the US, around 1 in 3 obese people suffer from arthritis, whereas about 2 out of 3 Americans are either overweight or obese.

With poor lifestyle, food habits, lack of physical activity etc, instances of obesity have been on a rise, directly affecting the number of arthritic patients.

Director of Mumbai-based AXIS Hospitals and Orthopedic Surgeon Umesh Shetty said a large number of patients suffering from arthritis and other related problems are either overweight or obese.
“Half the patients who come to me for knee replacements or other arthritic problems are either overweight or obese. We prefer and guide them for a non-surgical treatment as first line of treatment if the cases are not severe and help them to facilitate losing weight,” Dr Shetty told PTI.

“Weight loss can reduce stress on weight-bearing joints and therefore, limit further injury and delay the progress of arthritic condition,” he said.

Obesity causes excess fat in the body which releases inflammatory chemicals that may play a role in increasing instances of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Experts believe inflammatory chemicals like cytokines can impact different body systems.

According to studies quoted by Arthritis Foundation, a USA-based NGO, about 70 per cent of people with gout are overweight and 14 per cent are obese, and therefore, obesity also puts a person at a higher risk of developing gout apart from osteoarthritis.

“In order to control excess joint stress and inflammatory chemicals, it is advisable to keep the fat in control among all people and in particularly those who suffer from osteoarthritis,” Mr Bhat said.

“We advise such patients to undergo treatment with a qualified physiotherapist for strengthening their quadriceps and hamstring muscles so as to reduce the weight-burden on the knee joint. We also recommend non-invasive physiotherapies like ultrasonic therapy for knee joints, TENS (Trans Electrical Nerve Stimulation) etc,” Dr Shetty added.

In cases of arthritic patients also suffering from obesity, as a first line of action doctors suggest them to improve joint care through rest and exercise, maintain an acceptable body weight, control pain with medicine and other measures and achieve a healthy lifestyle in order to delay the progress of arthritis, he said.


Why young adults with lower education, income level are prone to obesity

25 per cent of young adults became overweight or obese, according to a research

Young adults with lower education or income level are at a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese, says a new study.

It found that 25 per cent of young adults became overweight or obese.

Emerging adulthood is a critical time period for excess weight gain: Excerpts from the journal

  • Researcher Deborah Rohm Young of Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Department of Research and Evaluation said, “Emerging adulthood is a critical time period for excess weight gain due to a variety of factors, including many teenagers leaving home for college and having more freedom and access to food.”
  • “Our study found that living in a disadvantaged place puts teens at an increased risk for being overweight or obese. Although we did not explore potential reasons for this increase, factors may include cultural norms, as well as lack of access to public parks and grocery stores,” added Young in the paper published in the journal Pediatric Obesity.

Factors of obesity:

  • Social determinants of health, which are the conditions in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
  •  Obesity count is based on the gender-specific body mass index (BMI) for age growth charts developed by the Centres for Disease Control
  • Also, females and blacks had almost 1.7 and 1.3 times more risk to be overweight or obese compared with males and whites, respectively.

About the research:

  • For the study, the researchers examined the health records of 22,823 ethnically diverse individuals who were in the age group of 18 years for four years with normal weight based on BMI less than 25
  • Over a period of four years, researchers found that about 23 per cent of the normal-weight teenagers with low education living in neighbourhoods became overweight and about 2 per cent of those became obese who are living in lower income neighbourhoods.
  • source”gsmarena”

What Are the Risks of Not Dealing With Obesity?

The grossly overweight, also known as the obese, are dealing with some very serious health problems. These are problems that can kill them. They must be educated about these issues and how they can avoid them. And they must learn that procedures such as the Orbera gastric balloon don’t just offer an easy way out, they are serious procedures that have various potential side effects.

Of course, all of that is easier said than done. Most of us know that we have to change our diet and levels of activity if we want to become healthy, or stay healthy. Yet, most of the walking with do is in grocery store isles to find the easiest, quickest, cheapest, most processed, and unhealthiest meal around. In fact, we now do most of that shopping online!

What If We Don’t Deal with It?

Some scientists suggest that the reason why we are becoming so obese is because we are going through a period of plentitude. There are exceptions, but by and large, we have more food and more disposable income than ever before in the history of mankind. We have gone through such periods before, such as during the Rubens’ era, when it was considered beautiful for women to be overweight. And, throughout history, the rich have been overweight due to the various feasts they would indulge in.

What these scientists suggest is that we will naturally come to a point again where we go through a period of scarcity, and the obesity epidemic will resolve itself. Others, however, fear that this could quite literally spell the end of mankind. If we are to hit a period of scarcity, it would mean some of the world’s largest industries, which are the pharmaceutical, marketing, cosmetic, fast food, and weight loss industries, would go bust as well. It is far more likely, therefore, that humans are being systematically killed. Because obesity will kill you.

How Will Obesity Kill You?

Obesity itself won’t kill you. But when you are obese, your body starts to fail. This means there is a wealth of conditions that you can, and most likely will, develop, most of them fatal. These conditions include:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Coronary heart failure
  • Strokes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Depression
  • Cancer
  • Osteoarthritis

Once you have one or more of these comorbid disorders, your quality of life will be greatly reduced. You will be trapped in a vicious cycle as well, because you will become even less inactive, which means you will put even more weigh one, which means you will be even more unhealthy, and so on.

Not dealing with obesity is not an option. We cannot simply watch ourselves, our friends, families, and communities, literally eat themselves to death in the hopes that the next generation will do better. We already know the next generation won’t do better, as our children are becoming increasingly obese as well. The time to act, and the time to change, is now.

Some Scary and Some Positive Obesity Statistics

The human body holds two types of fat: essential and stored. Essential fat, as the name suggests, is required in order to be healthy and to have properly functioning reproductive functions. The second type, however, is unnecessary fat that accumulates around our organs and between connective tissues. It is this that also leads to obesity and, once obesity gets too great, leads to people searching for Suffolk NY bariatric surgery. It is important that you are able to figure out just how much fat your body holds, and, more importantly, how much of that is stored fat.

Ideally, a human body holds between 1% and 19% fat. If you have 20% fat or more, then it means that you are classed as overweight or obese.

Three Categories of Obesity

There are three main categories of obesity:

  1. This is the most common of all, covering around 90% of people who are obese. IT means that people are 20% to 40% heavier than would be ideal for their gender and height.
  2. This covers around 9% of people who are obese. It means that they carry between 40% and 100% more weight than is ideal for their body.
  3. This is also referred to as morbid obesity. Only 1% of the obese fall into this category. It means that their weight is at least 100% higher than what it should be.

While currently only 1% of the population is classed as grossly obese, this percentage is on the increase. And, more worryingly, children are also starting to enter the moderate to grossly obese categories. One of the reasons for this is because the fast food industry bombards children with advertisements for toys and foods. But did you know that a typical children’s fast food meal contains about 600 calories, made up of 23 grams of fat (six of which are saturated) and more than 800 mg of salt? It isn’t just about the calories, in other words, it is also about what is in those calories. We know that obesity is a global problem and we really must do something about it.

We must all become familiar with our daily calorific recommended amount, how many carbohydrates and fats we can consume and more. We must also make sure that we absorb all the good nutrients and that we avoid the bad ones that contribute nothing to our overall health. You must, therefore, know not just how much you eat, but what you eat as well. This can be difficult as labels are often complex and, frighteningly, misleading. Court cases have actually been held to allow food manufacturers to be less than honest on their labels, which goes to show how difficult it is for people to become healthy, even if they want to.

We must all make a stand against this global epidemic. It won’t be easy, but it will certainly be worth it in the long run, as we are dying.