One in every 20 Indians suffers from depression

One in every 20 Indians suffers from depression (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)One in every 20 Indians suffers from depression (Thinkstock photos/Getty Images)
Indians popped in more anti-depressants than ever before in 2016, indicating perhaps that they are now more open to the idea of seeking help for mental health problems.

Around 10.6 lakh more prescriptions for anti-depressants were written in 2016 in comparison to 2015, shows data collated by health information agencies. While 3.35 crore prescriptions (for newly diagnosed patients) were written in 2015, doctors wrote 3.46 crore new prescriptions in 2016.

In fact, the number of prescriptions for anti-depressants written out by psychiatrists in 2016 represented a 14% increase from the previous year. Psychiatrists treat patients with major depressive disorders while doctors hailing from multiple specialties treat patients with mild depression or disease-related depression.

Depression, though widely spread in India, is rarely given importance in the public health system, which is burdened by infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and dengue as well as non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. In October 2016, the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru released a mental health survey that said one in every 20 Indians suffered from some form of depression. The prevalence of depression across the world has increased to such an extent that it’s the theme for the World Health Organisation’s World Health Day on April 7.

When contacted, NIMHANS director Dr B N Gangadhar said the increase in the number of prescriptions could also be an indication of the increasing number of psychiatrists in India. “There is no doubt that people are more open than before to seek help for depression, but a 14% rise in prescriptions could also mean there are more psychiatrists today than before,” Dr Gangadhar said, adding that roughly 360 new psychiatrists graduate annually .

Mumbai-based psychiatrist Dr Harish Shetty said there has been a tremendous increase in awareness about mental health. “There is a 100% increase in the number of patients coming to psychiatrists in the last couple of years,” he said, adding that the increase could be the tip of the iceberg.

Goa-based Dr Vikram Patel, who is attached to the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said antidepressants have low penetration in India. “If there is an increase, it is not surprising as more people seek help these days. This doesn’t mean there is an increase in the incidence of depression, but there is an increase in awareness,” he said. A recent survey by a pharma major recently listed family pressure, relationship issues as well as biological changes as the leading causes of depression among Indians.Dr Shetty pinpointed the “rapid shifts taking place in India” in the fields of finance, education, workplace, family , among others, as the major cause for depression. “People try to cramp in a century of living within a decade. The brain is being challenged beyond its potential, leading to an increase in depression rates. It is like an orchestra being disrupted,” said Dr Shetty .

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Depression is closely linked to social determinants.”Some may suffer from depression due to economic difficulties such as debt while women may suffer due to mental difficulties such as domestic violence,” said Dr Patel.

source”cnbc”

Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us

IANS | Jan 22, 2017, 07.01 PM IST

Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us (Image Courtesy: Pexels)Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us (Image Courtesy: Pexels)
Every time we eat food, it may trigger an inflammatory response that acts as a protective mechanism to fight the bacteria consumed along with the food, a study has found.

The findings showed that this inflammatory response, which acts as a protective mechanism, fails in overweight individuals leading to diabetes.

On the other hand, in healthy individuals, short-term inflammatory responses play an important role in sugar uptake and the activation of the immune system.

The study, led by researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland, showed that depending on the concentration of glucose in the blood, the number of macrophages — a type of immune cell or “scavenger cells” — around the intestines increases during meal times and produces the messenger substance Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta).

This stimulates insulin production in pancreatic beta cells and prompts the macrophages to increase IL-1beta production.

Insulin and IL-1beta work together to regulate blood sugar levels while IL-1beta ensures that the immune system is supplied with glucose and thus remains active.

This mechanism of the metabolism and immune system is dependent on the bacteria and nutrients that are ingested during meals, the researchers said.

With sufficient nutrients, the immune system is able to adequately combat foreign bacteria, said Erez Dror from the university.

Conversely, when there is a lack of nutrients, the few remaining calories must be conserved for important life functions at the expense of an immune response, Dror added.

The study was published in the journal Nature Immunology.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.

source”cnbc”

Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us

IANS | Jan 22, 2017, 07.01 PM IST

Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us (Image Courtesy: Pexels)Every meal triggers inflammation that may protect us (Image Courtesy: Pexels)
Every time we eat food, it may trigger an inflammatory response that acts as a protective mechanism to fight the bacteria consumed along with the food, a study has found.

The findings showed that this inflammatory response, which acts as a protective mechanism, fails in overweight individuals leading to diabetes.

On the other hand, in healthy individuals, short-term inflammatory responses play an important role in sugar uptake and the activation of the immune system.

The study, led by researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland, showed that depending on the concentration of glucose in the blood, the number of macrophages — a type of immune cell or “scavenger cells” — around the intestines increases during meal times and produces the messenger substance Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta).

This stimulates insulin production in pancreatic beta cells and prompts the macrophages to increase IL-1beta production.

Insulin and IL-1beta work together to regulate blood sugar levels while IL-1beta ensures that the immune system is supplied with glucose and thus remains active.

This mechanism of the metabolism and immune system is dependent on the bacteria and nutrients that are ingested during meals, the researchers said.

With sufficient nutrients, the immune system is able to adequately combat foreign bacteria, said Erez Dror from the university.

Conversely, when there is a lack of nutrients, the few remaining calories must be conserved for important life functions at the expense of an immune response, Dror added.

The study was published in the journal Nature Immunology.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.

source”cnbc”

Every new game revealed at The Game Awards 2016, from Guardians of the Galaxy to Zelda

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We’re still a few weeks out from announcing our own Game(s) of the Year list, but 2016’s first Faux Video Game Oscars event happened last night: The Game Awards, the show that Geoff Keighley spun out of Spike’s old Video Game Awards.

And as with every year, the awards themselves took second stage to the non-stop hype train of trailers for next year’s games. What an honor! So inside, you’ll find all of the World Exclusive Reveals™ from last night’s 2016 Game Awards. That means Mass Effect: AndromedaGuardians of the Galaxy: A Telltale Series, and more.

Bulletstorm: Full Clip

The “World Exclusive Reveal” train started before The Game Awards even officially started, with Gearbox and People Can Fly revealing Bulletstorm: Full Clipa.k.a. Bulletstorm: Remastered Edition. Or, if we’re being hopeful here, Bulletstorm: Maybe They Fixed The Damn PC Port This Time Around.

Death Stranding

Next up: A lengthy speech from Keighley honoring Metal Gear Solid mastermind Hideo Kojima, whose award fell into some weird limbo last year in the aftermath of the Kojima/Konami fallout.

Oh, and once Kojima had his award well in-hand he showed off another weird trailer for his upcoming game Death Stranding. Not as weird as “Norman Reedus naked holding a baby,” but this time we got “Dismembered baby doll floating down a canal.” So yeah, still pretty weird.

Guardians of the Galaxy: The Telltale Series

One lengthy music performance, a single award, and 20 minutes later, we got another reveal. This time? Telltale expands its staple of superhero-themed adventure games to include Guardians of the Galaxy. Not much to go on here. Just a brief teaser, but one that still garnered quite a bit of buzz nevertheless.

Dauntless

Another incredibly short teaser, this time for Dauntless, an upcoming action RPG from a who’s-who of developers that stem from BioWare, Riot, Capcom, and Blizzard. There’s not much to go on in the trailer, but the official press release says:

“Dauntless is an online co-op action role-playing game (RPG) set in an untamed science-fantasy world. Players take on the role of elite warriors known as Slayers who protect humanity by hunting ferocious Behemoths.

The world of Dauntless has been shattered by a cataclysmic event, creating a vast array of uncharted and majestic floating islands. Behemoths, as cunning as they are vicious, consume the land, and it’s up to the Slayers to hunt them down before they destroy what remains of the world.”

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Tired of boring ol’ video game trailers? Let’s take a break for some live Doommetal.

source”cnbc”

Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows

Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows (Getty Images)Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows (Getty Images)
Scientists have found that smoking a pack a day of cigarettes can cause 150 damaging changes to a smoker’s lung cells each year.

The findings come from a study of the devastating genetic damage, or mutations, caused by smoking in various organs in the body.

Publishing in the journal Science on Thursday, the researchers said the findings show a direct link between the number of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime and the number of mutations in the DNA of cancerous tumors.

The highest mutation rates were seen in lung cancers, but tumors in other parts of the body – including the bladder, liver and throat – also had smoking-associated mutations, they said. This explains why smoking also causes many other types of cancer beside lung cancer.

Smoking kills six million people a year worldwide and, if current trends continue, the World Health Organization predicts more than 1 billion tobacco-related deaths this century.

Cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA of a cell. Smoking has been linked with at least 17 types of cancer, but until now scientists were not clear on the mechanisms behind many of them.

Ludmil Alexandrov of Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States, one of those who carried out the research, explained that in particular, it had until now been difficult to explain how smoking increases the risk of cancer in parts of the body that don’t come into direct contact with smoke.

“Before now, we had a large body of epidemiological evidence linking smoking with cancer, but now we can actually observe and quantify the molecular changes in the DNA,” he said.

This study analyzed over 5,000 tumors, comparing cancers from smokers with those from people who had never smoked.

It found certain molecular fingerprints of DNA damage – called mutational signatures – in the smokers’ DNA, and the scientists counted how many of these were in different tumors.

In lung cells, they found that on average, smoking a pack of cigarettes a day led to 150 mutations in each cell every year. Each mutation is a potential start point for a “cascade of genetic damage” that can eventually lead to cancer, they said.

The results also showed that a smoking a pack of cigarettes a day led to an average 97 mutations in each cell in the larynx, 39 mutations for the pharynx, 23 for the mouth, 18 for the bladder, and six mutations in every cell of the liver each year.

Mike Stratton, who co-led the work at Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said it was a bit like digging in to the archaeology of each tumor

“The genome of every cancer provides a kind of archaeological record, written in the DNA code itself, of the exposures that caused the mutations,” he said. “Looking in the DNA of cancers can provide provocative new clues to how (they) develop and thus, potentially, how they can be prevented.”

source”cnbc”

One In Every Four Men In Aizawl Facing Cancer Threat

One In Every Four Men In Aizawl Facing Cancer Threat

AIZAWL: Men in Mizoram’s capital Aizawl have much higher probability of developing cancer than their counterparts in any other part of the country, an official said in Aizawl on Monday.

According to the Population Based Cancer Registries (PBCR), the probability of contracting any type of cancer in a lifetime (up to 74 years of age) is one in four males in Aizawl against one in seven to eight men in important cities in India.

“Probability of contracting cancer among females in Aizawl is one in five persons, whereas it is one in eight in Mumbai, one in seven in Delhi,” Eric Zomawia, Mizoram nodal officer of cancer and principal investigator for PBCR, told reporters.

As Mizoram tops all other states in India in tobacco consumption, the PBCR found that the major source of cancer in this north-eastern state is tobacco use.
Zomawia, quoting the PBCR, said cancer killed on an average 725 persons every year in Mizoram, which has a population of around 11 lakh.

There were 4,656 new cases of cancer, including 2,089 among females, reported between 2012 and 2014, confirming that, on an average, there were 1,552 new cancer cases per year in the state, bordering Myanmar and Bangladesh.

According to Aizawl PBCR, as many as 2,176 people died of various types of cancers in three years till 2014. Of the 2,176 cancer victims in three years (2012-2014), 830 were females and 1,346 males.

There are 29 PBCRs in the country with 11 of them in the northeast region, comprising eight states.

source”gsmarena”

Every AMD Radeon RX 470 you can buy: A cheat sheet

amd rx 470 msi 1 of 4
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Credit: Thomas Ryan
The Radeon RX 470 is here

Today, AMD’s affordable new Radeon RX 470 graphics card launched with a confusing pile of customized partner designs. Which one is right for you? We’ve rounded them all the available RX 470s and sorted them by price, complete with the key unique selling points of each.

Want to hear what we thought of AMD’s second Polaris-based GPU? Check out PCWorld’s XFX Radeon RX 470 review for the full low-down and a bucketload of performance charts. If you can’t lay hands on a 4GB RX 480, this is a great graphics card—but pricing and configurations vary wildly.

[“source -cncb”]

Every AMD Radeon RX 470 you can buy: A cheat sheet

amd rx 470 msi 1 of 4
See larger image
Credit: Thomas Ryan
The Radeon RX 470 is here

Today, AMD’s affordable new Radeon RX 470 graphics card launched with a confusing pile of customized partner designs. Which one is right for you? We’ve rounded them all the available RX 470s and sorted them by price, complete with the key unique selling points of each.

Want to hear what we thought of AMD’s second Polaris-based GPU? Check out PCWorld’s XFX Radeon RX 470 review for the full low-down and a bucketload of performance charts. If you can’t lay hands on a 4GB RX 480, this is a great graphics card—but pricing and configurations vary wildly.

[“source -cncb”]