Ibuprofen, a common over-the-counter pain reliever, has a troubling side-effect that’s often overlooked, but new findings have proved it’s more important to know about this now than ever before. Recent evidence found that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen, can increase your chances of having a heart attack in as little as one week of continuous use.
In a recent study published in the British Medical Journal, data from almost 450,000 people, 61,460 of whom had suffered a heart attack, was analyzed looking for the effect over time of taking three common anti-inflammatory painkillers: ibuprofen, diclofenac and naproxen. The data revealed that compared with people who didn’t take the painkillers, those who did ingest them had a 20 percent to 50 percent increased risk of having a heart attack.
Additionally, the risk was found to be higher for people who ingested 1,200 mg a day of ibuprofen (about six tablets of Advil) and 750 mg a day for naproxen (about three and a half Aleves), Yahoo! reports. The study reported that it only took a week for a higher risk of heart attack to set in on a person, with the highest risk occurring at about a month of usage. After a month, researchers found that the risk didn’t increase further but rather stayed the same.
Typically, NSAIDs are safe when used correctly for mild pain relief, however, many people have begun relying on NSAIDs for prolonged periods of time at a higher dosage to treat their pain, which is why the risk of heart attack associated with the use of NSAIDs has begun to rise.
While this study certainly revealed a scary truth about the drug, it’s important to note that taking an NSAID for minor pain relief at the lowest effective dose and a minimal length of time isn’t likely to cause aheart attack. It’s the usage level over a longer time period at higher dosage that can be dangerous, so it’s best to limit your use as much as possible to avoid any unwanted negative side effects.
NEW DELHI: The Sir Ganga Ram Hospital in New Delhi said it had recently found that the Chikungunya virus has a tendency not to show itself in the Chikungunya Igm serology test while it shows up during the RT-PCR test only, which the Hospital has been using it for the suspected samples.
Currently many of the hospitals in Delhi have been performing the Igm serology test, which is probably the reason why a lot of hospitals have not been able to confirm the presence of Chikungunya.
“This particular virus of Chikungunya has a tendency not to show itself in Chikungunya in the Igm serology test. Infact, in the last 10 days we applied Chikungunya Igm serology test in 385 samples and none of them were positive where as when we applied RT-PCR in 524 samples, a total of 293 samples came positive,” said Chand Wattal, Chairman of the Microbiology department at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital.
The RT-PCR test is being used by a very few hospitals currently in the national capital.
Ganga Ram Hospital has reported four deaths in last 24 hours due to various complications triggered due to Chikungunya. Delhi has witnessed a total of five deaths caused by the disease so far.
a brand newexaminesuggests that triclosan, an antimicrobial and antifungal agent observedin manypurchasermerchandiseranging from hand soaps to toys or even toothpaste, can swiftly disrupt bacterialgroupsfoundwithin thegut.
The studieswasposted in PLOS ONE via scientists from Oregon stateuniversity. It turned intoprimarily based on findings made with zebrafish, which researchers believe are an essential animal model to helpdecidefeasible human biological and fitnessinfluences of this antimicrobial compound.
Triclosan became first used as a clinic scrub within theNineteen Seventies and now could beone of themaximumcommon antimicrobial marketersin theinternational, discovered in shampoos, deodorants, toothpastes, mouth washes, kitchen utensils, cuttingforums, toys, bedding, socks and trash baggage. Itcontinues to beutilized inmedical settings, and can bewithout problems absorbed through the skin.
“there was a legacy of situationaboutexposure to microbial pathogens, which has causedimproved useof those antimicrobial products,” stated Thomas Sharpton, an assistant professor of microbiology andinformationinside the OSU schools of technology and Agricultural Sciences, and corresponding writer onthe brand newstudy.
“however, there’s now a growingfocus of the significance of the micro organism in our intestinemicrobiome for human health, and the overuse of antibiotics which canlead to the upward push of ‘superbugs.’ There are consequences to continuouslyseeking to kill the bacteriawithin theinternationalround us, aspectswe aresimplystarting toapprehend.”
inside the new look at, researchers determined that triclosan publicitytriggeredspeedyadjustments ineach the variety and composition of the microbiome in the laboratory animals. it’snow notclear what the implication can be for animal or human fitness, but scientists agree with that compromising of the micro organismwithin the intestinal tract can alsocontribute to the development or severity of ailment.
a fewbacteriahad beengreaterliable to the impact of triclosan than others, such as the circle of relatives Enterobacteriaceae; and others weregreater resilient, which include the genus Pseudomonas.
“genuinely there can beconditionswhere antibacterial retailers are needed,” stated Christopher Gaulke, lead authorat thetake a look at and a postdoctoral microbiology researcher in the OSU university ofscience.
“but, scientists now have evidence that intestinal micro organismmight also have metabolic, cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological affects, and worriesapproximately overuse of thoseagentsare legitimate. Cumulative affectsare alsoviable. We want to do extensivelygreaterassessmentof theiroutcomes, some of which might be dramatic and durable.”
The intestine–related microbiome performscriticalcapabilities for human health, prevents colonization with pathogens, stimulates the development of the immune gadget, and produces micronutrients wishedviathe host. disorder of this microbiome has been related to human disease, such as diabetes, coronary heartailment, arthritis and malnutrition, the scientists pointed outof theirstudy.
people are routinelyuncovered to an array of chemical compounds, metals, preservatives, microbes andnutrients, some of which can beuseful, a fewinnocuous, and others dangerous, the researchers said.part of the energy of the prevailingexamine is growingimprovedapproaches, viafast screening of zebrafish, to greaterwithout difficultydetermine which compounds may besuited and which arepoisonous, scientists say.
Triclosan has been a issue in componentbecauseit is sowidely used, and it’s alsoconvenientlyabsorbed via the skin and gastrointestinal tracts, showing up in urine, feces and breast milk. It additionallyhas been related to endocrine disruption in fish and rats, may additionally act as a liver tumor promoter,and canadjust inflammatory responses.
This studyconfirmed it wasquickassociated with shifts in the microbial networkshapeand canregulate the abundance of specific taxa.
Smoking tobacco refers to tobacco that is heated and smoked. Some common examples of smoking tobacco include cigarettes, cigars, and hookahs. It is important to note that while e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco and are not burned during use, their rise in popularity as “smoking” devices has led the FDA to propose that e-cigarettes be regulated as tobacco products (1)(2). A section on e-cigarettes is included below.
Each cigarette typically contains less than 1 gram of tobacco. Cigarettes are made of hundreds of chemicals that react in the presence of heat to produce thousands of chemicals. Many of the chemicals that have been identified as cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) can be found in the sticky, partially burned residue known as “tar”. Some of the remaining thousands of chemicals have been identified as toxic substances that may damage a person’s health (3). Some examples of the chemicals found in tobacco smoke are arsenic (also found in rat poison), butane (also found in lighter fluid), cadmium (also found in battery acid), carbon monoxide (also found in car exhaust fumes), nicotine (also used as insecticide), and toluene (also found in paints) (4). Smoking tobacco produces several powerful cancer-causing chemicals, including nitrosamines and benzo(a)pyrene.
Each cigar can contain between 1-20 grams of tobacco, depending on the size of the cigar. Cigar smoke contains higher levels of toxins and carcinogens than cigarette smoke due to the type of tobacco and wrapping used. The tobaccos used in cigars are fermented, producing higher levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines, which are released into the air when a cigar is smoked. Furthermore, cigar wrappers are less porous than cigarette wrappers, so there is less complete burning of cigar tobacco than of cigarette tobacco, resulting in higher levels of toxins in cigar smoke. Although most cigar smokers do not deeply inhale cigar smoke while smoking, they are still exposed to the carcinogenic substances (5).
Hookahs are water pipes used to smoke flavored tobacco. Hookah smoking has similar health risks as cigarette smoking, and hookah smoke is comparable in toxicity to cigarette smoke. Depending on the length of a hookah smoking session, hookah smoking may be more detrimental to smokers’ health because hookah smokers may end up inhaling more toxic chemicals than if they were to quickly smoke a cigarette. On average, approximately 90,000mL (about the volume of 24 one-gallon milk jugs) of smoke is inhaled during a 1-hour hookah smoking session, while 500-600mL (about the volume of a 1-pint milk carton) of smoke is inhaled when smoking a cigarette (6)(7)(8). In addition, if the hookah mouthpiece is shared among several people, there is also the possibility of transmitting infectious diseases, such as herpes, hepatitis, tuberculosis, and others (9).
E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that are typically designed to look like common objects, such as cigarettes, cigars, pens, pipes, and USB drives. These devices do not contain tobacco. Instead, they deliver nicotine in aerosol form for users to inhale (1). The FDA has found levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines and other toxic substances (ex: some chemicals also found in anti-freeze) in certain e-cigarette liquids. More research is needed to determine exactly what e-cigarettes contain, how they are used, and their effects on users. According to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, researchers observed that rising high school students who had previously used e-cigarettes, but not combustible tobacco products, were more likely to start using combustible tobacco products over the following 12 months, compared to rising high school students who had never used e-cigarettes or combustible tobacco products (10). As of May 2014, the FDA has not yet approved e-cigarettes as devices that help people quit smoking (11). The FDA has, however, proposed that e-cigarettes be categorized as tobacco products. If the proposed rule passes, e-cigarettes will be regulated under FDA authority (2). Such regulations would involve minimum age restrictions, inclusion of health warning labels, and more (12)(2).
Electronic cigaretteSmokeless Tobacco
Smokeless tobacco refers to tobacco that is used in ways that do not involve burning the tobacco. Examples of smokeless tobacco include chewing tobacco and snuff. Smokeless tobacco contains over 30 known carcinogens. Examples include the nitrosamines, NNK (4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone), and NNN (NL’;-nitrosonornicotine). There are approximately 1-5 μg of NNK and NNN present in every gram of smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco users are exposed to 100-1000 times more carcinogenic nitrosamines than nonusers. The carcinogens listed above, along with their metabolites (metabolites are additional chemicals produced when the body processes something that has been taken in), can be detected in saliva and urine samples. Studies suggest that NNK and NNN that have been processed in the body may causeDNA changes in mouth tissues, which can lead to permanent DNA damage. DNA damage to important genes, such as RASand P53, can result in cancer. Additionally, the metabolism of carcinogens produces reactive chemicals that could lead to chronic inflammation and irritation in the body (13).
Chewing tobacco are loose tobacco leaves that are chewed and spat out. Chewing releases the nicotine present in tobacco, and the nicotine is absorbed through mouth tissues (14). Chewing tobacco was the most prevalent form of tobacco in the U.S. prior to the cigarette industry expansion in 1918 (13).
Snuff is found in 2 forms: dry snuff and moist snuff. Dry snuff is a form of powdered tobacco that is inhaled through the nose, while moist snuff, also known as dipping tobacco, is marketed as a discreet way of using tobacco. Moist snuff is placed in the mouth so that the nicotine is absorbed through the mouth tissues (14). Snuff is the most prevalent form of smokeless tobacco in some countries, including Sweden (13).