Are You Having Excessive Hair Loss? Know the Causes

Are You Having Excessive Hair Loss? Know the Causes

Excessive hair loss may be due to many reasons

Losing hair is a natural occurrence and according to a New York based study, on an average, we lose at around 50-100 hair strands on regular basis. And this happens because your hair goes through its cycle where your hair re-grows when you lose them. However, if that cycle disturbs because of certain reasons, you should immediately get your Doctor’s appointment. While choosing a suitable hair shampoo and conditioner are essential to prevent excessive hair loss, there are certain physical and mental reasons which contribute to it. Losing hair also acts as an indicator of your overall health and therefore it is important to be careful about excessive hair loss. Hence, read further to know about the reasons which makes that happen.

1. Hormonal Changes

Imbalanced secretion of hormones in the body causes excessive hair loss. The reasons for this hormonal imbalance is manifold; they can be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. According to health experts, thyroid problems also distorts hormonal levels.

2. Scalp Infections

Scalp infections like- Ringworm loosens your hair roots and often result in patchy scalp. An unhealthy scalp can cause inflammation that makes it difficult for hair to grow. Skin conditions that lead to hair loss include Seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff), psoriasis and fungal infections.

Seborrheic dermatitis causes the scalp to shed it skin which leads to greasy and yellowish scales on your shoulders or in your hair. It is possibly because of hormonal changes or excess oil in the skin.

3. Hair-Pulling Disorder

Hair-Pulling Disorder is also called trichotillomania which causes people to have an irresistible urge to pull out their hair- from scalp, eyebrows or other areas of the body. This unusual disorder leads to hair loss.

4. Hereditary Hair Loss

Genetic hair loss is known as androgenetic alopecia and according to the American Academy of Dermatology, it is one of the most common cause for hair loss. The gene can be inherited either from your mother or father. If not given timely medical attention, this leads to permanent hair loss.

5. Hyperthyroidism

When your body produces too little thyroid hormone, you are said to have hypothyroidism (or an under-active thyroid). Thyroid hormone is responsible for everything from your basal metabolic rate to the growth of your hair, skin and nails. But when you don’t have the right amount, you may notice changes in bodily functions.

6. Iron Deficiency

Women with heavy blood flow during menstruation or those who intake food with insufficient nutrient content, have unusual loss of hair. The excessive blood flow during periods, often lead to iron deficiency which obstructs the oxygen supply into your blood.

7. Excessive Styling

Too much styling and dyeing can harm your tresses. Heat and chemicals used in styling weakens your hair, causing it to break and fall out. It is, therefore, advisable to style your hair while being mindful of the kind and composition of the hair-color used.

[“Source-doctor.ndtv”]

Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows

Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows (Getty Images)Smoking a pack a day causes 150 mutations in every lung cell, research shows (Getty Images)
Scientists have found that smoking a pack a day of cigarettes can cause 150 damaging changes to a smoker’s lung cells each year.

The findings come from a study of the devastating genetic damage, or mutations, caused by smoking in various organs in the body.

Publishing in the journal Science on Thursday, the researchers said the findings show a direct link between the number of cigarettes smoked in a lifetime and the number of mutations in the DNA of cancerous tumors.

The highest mutation rates were seen in lung cancers, but tumors in other parts of the body – including the bladder, liver and throat – also had smoking-associated mutations, they said. This explains why smoking also causes many other types of cancer beside lung cancer.

Smoking kills six million people a year worldwide and, if current trends continue, the World Health Organization predicts more than 1 billion tobacco-related deaths this century.

Cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA of a cell. Smoking has been linked with at least 17 types of cancer, but until now scientists were not clear on the mechanisms behind many of them.

Ludmil Alexandrov of Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States, one of those who carried out the research, explained that in particular, it had until now been difficult to explain how smoking increases the risk of cancer in parts of the body that don’t come into direct contact with smoke.

“Before now, we had a large body of epidemiological evidence linking smoking with cancer, but now we can actually observe and quantify the molecular changes in the DNA,” he said.

This study analyzed over 5,000 tumors, comparing cancers from smokers with those from people who had never smoked.

It found certain molecular fingerprints of DNA damage – called mutational signatures – in the smokers’ DNA, and the scientists counted how many of these were in different tumors.

In lung cells, they found that on average, smoking a pack of cigarettes a day led to 150 mutations in each cell every year. Each mutation is a potential start point for a “cascade of genetic damage” that can eventually lead to cancer, they said.

The results also showed that a smoking a pack of cigarettes a day led to an average 97 mutations in each cell in the larynx, 39 mutations for the pharynx, 23 for the mouth, 18 for the bladder, and six mutations in every cell of the liver each year.

Mike Stratton, who co-led the work at Britain’s Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said it was a bit like digging in to the archaeology of each tumor

“The genome of every cancer provides a kind of archaeological record, written in the DNA code itself, of the exposures that caused the mutations,” he said. “Looking in the DNA of cancers can provide provocative new clues to how (they) develop and thus, potentially, how they can be prevented.”

source”cnbc”

Gestational hypertension causes multiple problems

Gestational hypertension causes multiple problems (Thinkstock Photos/ Getty Images)Gestational hypertension causes multiple problems (Thinkstock Photos/
Getty Images)
Awareness Remains Low, Says Study
It may not be as infamous as its usual peer, diabetes, but is deadlier. And pregnant women are paying the price. For long, doctors have known that hypertension is the second most prevalent medical disorder seen during pregnancy. Now, a study, covering 245 pregnant women in a city-based hospital, has revealed the extent of complications caused by pregnancy-induced hypertension: Three out of every 10 women with severe PIH faced risk of placental abruption and birth asphyxia, and intrauterine growth retardation was seen in around 25% of the cases.
Lokeshwari Jayaraman from the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Sri Muthukumaran Medical College hospital was among six researchers from across the country who set out to study feto-maternal complications in PIH cases, hoping to establish a pattern to identify them early.

Among the participants with the condition chosen for the study, 59% had the milder form of hypertension, 22% had moderate and 18.4% had severe PIH. “The numbers revealed a significant relation between the antenatal care given to the women and the severity of PIH. It was higher among women with fewer hospital visits,” said Jayaraman.

Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks gestation. It usually affects 6-8% of pregnant women, and, along with haemorrhage and infection, contributes to maternal mortality.

Doctors say that unlike gestational diabetes, which affects 40% of the pregnant population, awareness on PIH remains low. “It isn’t as well recognised but the impact is much more compared to diabetes. It can leave the mother with long-term complications like persistent hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity,” said gynaecologist Dr Geetha Haripriya.

source”cnbc”

She said that while many of them respond well to treatment, at least 3-4% of them don’t. “In such instances, the only option open to us is to induce labour,” she said.

According to the study, published in the International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, among mothers the most common complication was imminent eclampsia – a condition where the woman suffers from convulsions, often followed by coma, posing a threat to her health and that of the baby. As for the foetus, the most common symptom researchers noticed was birth asphyxia – deprivation of oxygen to a newborn infant – followed by intra-uterine growth retardation.

Prolonged Sitting Causes 4 Per Cent Of Deaths Worldwide: Study

Prolonged Sitting Causes 4 Per Cent Of Deaths Worldwide: Study

NEW YORK:  Nearly four per cent of all deaths – approximately 433,000 per year — are due to the fact that people worldwide spend more than three hours a day just sitting down, a study has found.

Various studies over the last decade have demonstrated how the excessive amount of time we spend sitting down may increase the risk of death, regardless of whether or not we exercise.

The new study, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, now estimates the proportion of deaths attributable to that ‘chair effect’ in the population of 54 countries, using data from 2002 to 2011.

“It is important to minimise sedentary behaviour in order to prevent premature deaths around the world,” said lead author of the study Leandro Rezende from University of Sao Paulo in Brazil.

He also highlighted that “cutting down on the amount of time we sit could increase life expectancy by 0.20 years in the countries analysed.”

The results revealed that over 60 per cent of people worldwide spend more than three hours a day sitting down – the average in adults is 4.7 hours/day — and this is the culprit behind 3.8 per cent of deaths.

Among the territories studied, there were more deaths in the regions of the Western Pacific, followed by European countries, the Eastern Mediterranean, America and Southeast Asia.

The highest rates were found in Lebanon (11.6 per cent), the Netherlands (7.6 per cent) and Denmark (6.9 per cent), while the lowest rates were in Mexico (0.6 per cent), Myanmar (1.3 per cent) and Bhutan (1.6 per cent).

The authors calculated that reducing the amount of time we sit by about two hours (by half) would mean a 2.3 per cent decrease in mortality.

Even a more modest reduction in sitting time, by 10 per cent or half an hour per day, could have an immediate impact on all causes of mortality (0.6 per cebt) in the countries evaluated.

In the words of the experts, measures aimed at addressing the determining factors behind this sedentary conduct would be necessary.

“Some examples of this approach were recently highlighted by the World Health Organisation,” Rezende said.

“For example, a strategic health communication campaign was developed to promote physical activity among women in Tonga (Oceania), while a bicycle-sharing system was developed in Iran in addition to a sustainable transport system in Germany,” he noted.

source”gsmarena”

Disorder that causes blindness in kids tied to new gene

Northwestern medication and university of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) scientists have diagnosed a gene that reasons excessive glaucoma in children. The locating, posted inside the journal of medical research, validates a similar discovery made by way of the scientists in mice two years ago and suggests a goal fordestiny therapies to deal with the devastating eye ailment that presently has no treatment.

“This paintings shows us how a genetic mutation causes a excessive form of glaucoma known asnumber one congenital glaucoma, which afflicts a extensive portion of kids enrolled in establishments for the blind international,” said primary investigator Dr. Susan Quaggin, chief of nephrology andhypertension at Northwestern college Feinberg college of drugs and Northwestern Memorial medical institution.

The gene, TEK, is concerned within the improvement of a vessel in the attention referred to asSchlemm’s canal, which drains fluid from the anterior portion of the attention. In glaucoma, this vessel may be defective or missing, developing stress buildup that can harm the optic nerve and motive imaginative and prescient loss. In preceding studies, Quaggin’s lab showed that deleting the gene in mouse fashionsled to glaucoma, however the scientists didn’t realize how mutations impairing the gene affected humans.

After publishing that research, Quaggin met Dr. Terri younger, a pediatric ophthalmologist and chair of Opthalmology on the UW. young had diagnosed mutations in TEK in a number of her sufferers, howeverdid not know the importance.

“It was greater than coincidental,” Quaggin stated. “Our meeting caused collaborations with ophthalmologists and geneticists from around the arena who identified greater mutations on this gene inchildren with this shape of glaucoma. It become one of these eureka moments that on occasion takes place in technological know-how.”

Altogether, the team observed TEK mutations in 10 unrelated families with youngsters who have number one congenital glaucoma. All of these youngsters did now not have mutations in other genes recognizedto reason glaucoma.

The scientists then verified that the TEK mutations identified in youngsters impair the vascular signaling pathway critical in Schlemm’s canal formation — the equal way they do in mice. Findings made in animalmodels do not always translate to patients, however it seems that this crucial eye vessel capabilitiesvery further in mice and humans.

“We don’t know how different genes associated with glaucoma purpose this sickness,” Quaggin stated. “With TEK, we understand precisely what is going on wrong, this means that we’ve diagnosed a pathway that may be a awesome new therapeutic goal for extreme glaucoma or even morecommonplace varieties of the sickness.”

In ongoing studies, Quaggin’s organization is growing an eye fixed drop that upkeep the TEK pathway torestoration the defective vessel. The scientists are also exploring whether TEK pathway mutations play afunction in grownup-onset glaucoma.

[“source-gsmarena”]

Glaucoma: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Glaucoma is a disease of the eye in which fluid pressure within the eye rises – if left untreated the patient may lose vision, and even become blind. The disease generally affects both eyes, although one may have more severe signs and symptoms than the other.

There is a small space in the front of the eye called the “anterior chamber”. Clear liquid flows in-and-out of the anterior chamber, this fluid nourishes and bathes nearby tissues. If a patient has glaucoma, the fluid does not drain properly – it drains too slowly – out of the eye. This leads to fluid build-up, and pressure inside the eye rises. Unless this pressure is brought down and controlled, the optic nerve and other parts of the eye may become damaged, leading to loss of vision.

There are two main types of glaucoma, open angle and closed angle (angle closure) glaucoma. The fluid in the eye flows through an area between the iris and cornea, where it escapes via the trabecular meshwork – “angle” refers to this area. The trabecular meshwork is made of sponky tissue lined by trabeculocytes. Fluid drains into s set of tubes, known as Schlemm’s canal, from which they flow into the blood system.

Closed Angle Glaucoma (acute angle-closure glaucoma) can come on suddenly, and the patient commonly experiences pain and rapid vision loss. Fortunately, the symptoms of pain and discomfort make the sufferer seek medical help, resulting in prompt treatment which usually prevents any permanent damage from occurring.

Glaucoma illustration

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (chronic glaucoma) – progresses very slowly. The patient may not feel any symptoms; even slight loss of vision may go unnoticed. In this type of glaucoma, many people don’t get medical help until some permanent damage has already occurred.

Low-tension glaucoma – this is another form that experts do not fully understand. Even though eye pressure is normal, optic nerve damage still occurs. Perhaps the optic nerve is over-sensitive or there is atherosclerosis in the blood vessel that supplies the optic nerve.

Pigmentary glaucoma – this type generally develops during early or middle adulthood. Pigment granules, which arise from the back of the iris, are dispersed within the eye. If these granules build up in the trabecular meshwork, they can undermine the flow of fluids in the eye, leading to a rise in eye pressure. Running and some other sports can unsettle the granules, which get into the travecular meshwork.

Glaucoma has been called the silent thief of sight

  • Primary glaucoma – this means we do not know what the cause was.
  • Secondary glaucoma – the condition has a known cause, such as a tumor, diabetes, an advanced cataract, or inflammation.

Symptoms of glaucoma

Glaucoma simulation - normal photo of 2 children

Glaucoma simulation - photo of 2 children from someone with glaucoma
How a person with advanced vision loss from glaucoma sees the same thing. Image credits: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

A symptom is something the sufferer experiences and describes, such as pain, while a sign is something others can identify, such as a rash or a swelling.

The signs and symptoms of primary open angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma are quite different.

Signs and symptoms of primary open-angle glaucoma

  • Peripheral vision is gradually lost. This nearly always affects both eyes.
  • In advanced stages, the patient has tunnel vision

Signs and symptoms of closed angle glaucoma

  • Eye pain, usually severe
  • Blurred vision
  • Eye pain is often accompanied by nausea, and sometimes vomiting
  • Lights appear to have extra halo-like glows around them
  • Red eyes
  • Sudden, unexpected vision problems, especially when lighting is poor

Glaucoma risk factors

A risk factor is something that raises the risk of developing a condition or disease. For example, obesity is a risk factor for diabetes type 2 – obese people have a higher risk of developing diabetes.

  • Old age – people over the age of 60 years have a higher risk of developing the disease. For African-Americans, the risk rises at a younger age.
  • Ethnic background – East Asians, because of their shallower anterior chamber depth, have a higher risk of developing glaucoma compared to Caucasians. The risk for those of Inuit origin is considerably greater still. People of African-American descent are three to four times more likely to develop the disease compared to American whites. Females are three times as likely to develop glaucoma as males.
  • Some illnesses and conditions – people with diabetes or hypothyroidism have a much higher chance of developing glaucoma.
  • Eye injuries or conditions – some eye injuries, especially severe ones, are linked to a higher glaucoma risk. Retinal detachment, eye inflammations and eye tumors can also cause glaucoma to occur.
  • Eye surgery – some patients who underwent eye surgery have a higher risk of glaucoma.
  • Myopia – people with myopia (nearsightedness) have a higher risk of glaucoma.
  • Corticosteroids – patients on long-term corticosteroids have a raised risk of developing several different conditions, including glaucoma. The risk is even greater with eyedrops containing corticosteroids.

[“source -cncb”]